Commit 0e3f4049 authored by Chong Yidong's avatar Chong Yidong
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(Font X): Document Fontconfig and GTK font specification formats.

parent e85103ec
......@@ -779,117 +779,182 @@ remote machine.
@appendixsec Font Specification Options
@cindex font name (X Window System)
By default, Emacs displays text in a twelve point Courier font (when
using X). You can specify a different font on your command line
through the option @samp{-fn @var{name}} (or @samp{--font}, which is
an alias for @samp{-fn}).
By default, Emacs displays text in X using a twelve point monospace
font. You can specify a different font using the command line option
@samp{-fn @var{font}} (or @samp{--font}, which is an alias for
@samp{-fn}).
@table @samp
@item -fn @var{name}
@item -fn @var{font}
@opindex -fn
@itemx --font=@var{name}
@itemx --font=@var{font}
@opindex --font
@cindex specify default font from the command line
Use font @var{name} as the default font.
Use @var{font} as the default font.
@end table
Under X, each font has a long name which consists of fourteen words
or numbers, separated by dashes. Some fonts also have shorter
nicknames. For instance, @samp{9x15} is such a nickname. This font
makes each character nine pixels wide and fifteen pixels high. You
can use either kind of name. Case is insignificant in both kinds.
You can use wildcard patterns for the font name; then Emacs lets X
choose one of the fonts that match the pattern. The wildcard
character @samp{*} matches any sequence of characters (including none)
and @samp{?} matches any single character. However, matching is
implementation-dependent, and can be inaccurate when wildcards match
dashes in a long name. For reliable results, supply all 14 dashes and
use wildcards only within a field. Here is an example, which happens
to specify the font whose nickname is @samp{6x13}:
@cindex X defaults file
@cindex X resources file
You can also specify the font using your X resources file (usually a
file named @file{.Xdefaults} or @file{.Xresources} in your home
directory), by adding a line like this:
@smallexample
emacs.font: @samp{font}
@end smallexample
@noindent
You must restart X, or use the @command{xrdb} command, for the X
resources file to take effect. @xref{Resources}.
@cindex fontconfig
There are four different ways to express a ``font name''. The first
is to use the @dfn{Fontconfig format}, which has the following form:
@smallexample
@var{fontname}[-@var{fontsize}][:@var{property1}][:@var{property2}]...
@end smallexample
@noindent
Within this format, any of the elements in braces may be omitted.
Here, @var{fontname} is the ``family name'' of the font, such as
@samp{Monospace} or @samp{DejaVu Serif}; @var{fontsize} is the ``point
size'' of the font (one ``printer's point'' is about 1/72 of an inch);
and the @var{property} entries specify font settings such as
@samp{bold}, @samp{italic}, @samp{weight=bold}, @samp{slant=oblique},
and so forth. Here are some examples of specifying fonts using the
Fontconfig format:
@smallexample
emacs -fn \
"-misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-*-*-*-c-60-iso8859-1" &
Monospace
Monospace-12
Monospace-12:bold
DejaVu Sans Mono:bold:italic
Monospace-12:weight=bold:slant=italic
@end smallexample
@noindent
You can also specify the font in your @file{.Xdefaults} file:
When passing a font specification to Emacs on the command line, you
may need to ``quote'' it, by enclosing it in quotation marks, if it
contains characters that the shell treats specially (e.g. spaces).
For example:
@smallexample
emacs.font: -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-*-*-*-c-60-iso8859-1
emacs -fn "DejaVu Sans Mono-12"
@end smallexample
Note that if you use a wildcard pattern on the command line, you
need to enclose it in single or double quotes, to prevent the shell
from accidentally expanding it into a list of file names. On the
other hand, you should not quote the name in the @file{.Xdefaults}
file.
@noindent
When specifying a font in your X resources file, you should not quote
it.
The default font used by Emacs (under X) is:
The second way to specify a font is to use the @dfn{GTK format}.
This has the syntax
@smallexample
-adobe-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1
@var{fontname} [@var{properties}] [@var{fontsize}]
@end smallexample
A long font name has the following form:
where @var{fontname} is the family name, @var{properties} is a list of
font properties separated by spaces, and @var{fontsize} is the point
size. For example:
@smallexample
Monospace 12
Monospace Bold Italic 12
@end smallexample
@cindex XLFD
@cindex X Logical Font Description
The third way to specify a font is to use an @dfn{XLFD} (@dfn{X
Logical Font Description}), which is the traditional method for
specifying fonts under X. Each XLFD consists of fourteen words or
numbers, separated by dashes, like this:
@smallexample
-misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-*-*-*-c-60-iso8859-1
@end smallexample
@noindent
A wildcard character (@samp{*}) in an XLFD matches any sequence of
characters (including none), and @samp{?} matches any single
character. However, matching is implementation-dependent, and can be
inaccurate when wildcards match dashes in a long name. For reliable
results, supply all 14 dashes and use wildcards only within a field.
Case is insignificant in an XLFD. The syntax for an XLFD is as
follows:
@smallexample
-@var{maker}-@var{family}-@var{weight}-@var{slant}-@var{widthtype}-@var{style}@dots{}
@dots{}-@var{pixels}-@var{height}-@var{horiz}-@var{vert}-@var{spacing}-@var{width}-@var{registry}-@var{encoding}
@end smallexample
@noindent
The entries have the following meanings:
@table @var
@item maker
This is the name of the font manufacturer.
The name of the font manufacturer.
@item family
This is the name of the font family---for example, @samp{courier}.
The name of the font family (e.g. @samp{courier}).
@item weight
This is normally @samp{bold}, @samp{medium} or @samp{light}. Other
words may appear here in some font names.
The font weight---normally either @samp{bold}, @samp{medium} or
@samp{light}. Some font names support other values.
@item slant
This is @samp{r} (roman), @samp{i} (italic), @samp{o} (oblique),
@samp{ri} (reverse italic), or @samp{ot} (other).
The font slant---normally @samp{r} (roman), @samp{i} (italic),
@samp{o} (oblique), @samp{ri} (reverse italic), or @samp{ot} (other).
Some font names support other values.
@item widthtype
This is normally @samp{condensed}, @samp{extended}, @samp{semicondensed}
or @samp{normal}. Other words may appear here in some font names.
The font width---normally @samp{condensed}, @samp{extended},
@samp{semicondensed} or @samp{normal} (some font names support other
values).
@item style
This is an optional additional style name. Usually it is empty---most
long font names have two hyphens in a row at this point.
An optional additional style name. Usually it is empty---most long
font names have two hyphens in a row at this point.
@item pixels
This is the font height, in pixels.
The font height, in pixels.
@item height
This is the font height on the screen, measured in tenths of a printer's
point---approximately 1/720 of an inch. In other words, it is the point
size of the font, times ten. For a given vertical resolution,
@var{height} and @var{pixels} are proportional; therefore, it is common
to specify just one of them and use @samp{*} for the other.
The font height on the screen, measured in tenths of a printer's
point. This is the point size of the font, times ten. For a given
vertical resolution, @var{height} and @var{pixels} are proportional;
therefore, it is common to specify just one of them and use @samp{*}
for the other.
@item horiz
This is the horizontal resolution, in pixels per inch, of the screen for
which the font is intended.
The horizontal resolution, in pixels per inch, of the screen for which
the font is intended.
@item vert
This is the vertical resolution, in pixels per inch, of the screen for
which the font is intended. Normally the resolution of the fonts on
your system is the right value for your screen; therefore, you normally
The vertical resolution, in pixels per inch, of the screen for which
the font is intended. Normally the resolution of the fonts on your
system is the right value for your screen; therefore, you normally
specify @samp{*} for this and @var{horiz}.
@item spacing
This is @samp{m} (monospace), @samp{p} (proportional) or @samp{c}
(character cell).
@item width
This is the average character width, in pixels, multiplied by ten.
The average character width, in pixels, multiplied by ten.
@item registry
@itemx encoding
These together make up the X font character set that the font depicts.
(X font character sets are not the same as Emacs charsets, but they
are solutions for the same problem.) You can use the
@command{xfontsel} program to check which choices you have. However,
normally you should use @samp{iso8859} for @var{registry} and @samp{1}
for @var{encoding}.
The X font character set that the font depicts. (X font character
sets are not the same as Emacs character sets, but they are similar.)
You can use the @command{xfontsel} program to check which choices you
have. Normally you should use @samp{iso8859} for @var{registry} and
@samp{1} for @var{encoding}.
@end table
Some fonts have shorter nicknames, which you can use instead of a
normal font specification. For instance,
@smallexample
-misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-*-*-*-c-60-iso8859-1
@end smallexample
@noindent
is equivalent to @samp{6x13}.
@cindex listing system fonts
You will probably want to use a fixed-width default font---that is,
a font in which all characters have the same width. Any font with
@samp{m} or @samp{c} in the @var{spacing} field of the long name is a
@samp{m} or @samp{c} in the @var{spacing} field of the XLFD is a
fixed-width font. Here's how to use the @command{xlsfonts} program to
list all the fixed-width fonts available on your system:
......@@ -910,9 +975,8 @@ xfd -fn 6x13
@noindent
displays the entire font @samp{6x13}.
While running Emacs, you can set the font of the current frame
(@pxref{Frame Parameters}) or for a specific kind of text
(@pxref{Faces}).
While running Emacs, you can set the font of a specific kind of text
(@pxref{Faces}), or of a particular frame (@pxref{Frame Parameters}).
@node Colors
@appendixsec Window Color Options
......
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