Commit 107ddb97 authored by Chong Yidong's avatar Chong Yidong

Update English tutorial.

* etc/tutorials/TUTORIAL: Don't give instructions for old-style X
scrollbars.  Use DEL terminology instead of DelBack.  Improve
description of graphical continuation lines and mode-line.
Promote use of C-/ and C-SPC.  Remove discussion of flow control.
parent 27e428e7
......@@ -99,7 +99,7 @@ names of the people who have checked it.
SECTION READERS
----------------------------------
TUTORIAL
TUTORIAL cyd
TUTORIAL.bg
TUTORIAL.cn
TUTORIAL.cs
......
2012-01-10 Chong Yidong <cyd@gnu.org>
* tutorials/TUTORIAL: Don't give instructions for old-style X
scrollbars. Use DEL terminology instead of DelBack. Improve
description of graphical continuation lines and mode-line.
Promote use of C-/ and C-SPC. Remove discussion of flow control.
2012-01-05 Glenn Morris <rgm@gnu.org>
* refcards/calccard.tex, refcards/cs-dired-ref.tex:
......
......@@ -217,21 +217,10 @@ screenful. For example, C-u 8 C-v scrolls the screen by 8 lines.
This should have scrolled the screen up by 8 lines. If you would like
to scroll it down again, you can give an argument to M-v.
If you are using a windowed display, such as X or MS-Windows, there
If you are using a graphical display, such as X or MS-Windows, there
should be a tall rectangular area called a scroll bar on one side of
the Emacs window. (There are other tall rectangles on either side of
the Emacs display. These "fringes" are used for displaying
continuation characters and other symbols. The scroll bar appears on
only one side, and is the outermost column on that side.)
You can scroll the text by clicking the mouse in the scroll bar.
>> Try pressing the middle button at the top of the highlighted area
within the scroll bar. This should scroll the text to a position
determined by how high or low you click.
>> Try moving the mouse up and down, while holding the middle button
pressed down. You'll see that the text scrolls up and down as
you move the mouse.
the Emacs window. You can scroll the text by clicking the mouse in
the scroll bar.
If your mouse has a wheel button, you can also use this to scroll.
......@@ -247,8 +236,8 @@ You can also use C-g to discard a numeric argument or the beginning of
a command that you do not want to finish.
>> Type C-u 100 to make a numeric argument of 100, then type C-g.
Now type C-f. It should move just one character,
because you canceled the argument with C-g.
Now type C-f. It should move just one character, because you
canceled the argument with C-g.
If you have typed an <ESC> by mistake, you can get rid of it with a C-g.
......@@ -274,9 +263,9 @@ disabled command, answer the question with "n".
* WINDOWS
---------
Emacs can have several windows, each displaying its own text. We will
explain later on how to use multiple windows. Right now we want to
explain how to get rid of extra windows and go back to basic
Emacs can have several "windows", each displaying its own text. We
will explain later on how to use multiple windows. Right now we want
to explain how to get rid of extra windows and go back to basic
one-window editing. It is simple:
C-x 1 One window (i.e., kill all other windows).
......@@ -286,9 +275,9 @@ which contains the cursor, to occupy the full screen. It deletes all
other windows.
>> Move the cursor to this line and type C-u 0 C-l.
>> Type CONTROL-h k CONTROL-f.
>> Type C-h k C-f.
See how this window shrinks, while a new one appears
to display documentation on the CONTROL-f command.
to display documentation on the C-f command.
>> Type C-x 1 and see the documentation listing window disappear.
......@@ -302,39 +291,36 @@ These commands are two, three or four characters long.
* INSERTING AND DELETING
------------------------
If you want to insert text, just type the text. Characters which you
can see, such as A, 7, *, etc. are taken by Emacs as text and inserted
immediately. Type <Return> (the carriage-return key) to insert a
Newline character.
You can delete the last character you typed by typing <Delback>.
<Delback> is a key on the keyboard--the same one you normally use,
outside Emacs, for deleting the last character you typed. It is
normally a large key a couple of lines up from the <Return> key, and
it is usually labeled "Delete", "Del" or "Backspace".
If you want to insert text, just type the text. Ordinary characters,
like A, 7, *, etc., are inserted as you type them. To insert a
Newline character, type <Return> (this is the key on the keyboard
which is sometimes labeled "Enter").
If the large key there is labeled "Backspace", then that's the one you
use for <Delback>. There may also be another key labeled "Delete"
somewhere else, but that's not <Delback>.
To delete <DEL> the character immediately before the current cursor
position, type <DEL>. This is the key on the keyboard usually labeled
"Backspace"--the same one you normally use, outside Emacs, to delete
the last character typed.
More generally, <Delback> deletes the character immediately before the
current cursor position.
There may also be another key on your keyboard labeled <Delete>, but
that's not the one we refer to as <DEL>.
>> Do this now--type a few characters, then delete them
by typing <Delback> a few times. Don't worry about this file
being changed; you will not alter the master tutorial. This is
your personal copy of it.
>> Do this now--type a few characters, then delete them by
typing <DEL> a few times. Don't worry about this file
being changed; you will not alter the master tutorial.
This is your personal copy of it.
When a line of text gets too big for one line on the screen, the line
of text is "continued" onto a second screen line. A backslash ("\")
(or, if you're using a windowed display, a little curved arrow) at the
right margin (actually, in the right "fringe") indicates a line which
has been continued.
of text is "continued" onto a second screen line. If you're using a
graphical display, little curved arrows appear in the narrow spaces on
each side of the text area (the left and right "fringes"), to indicate
where a line has been continued. If you're using a text terminal, the
continued line is indicated by a backslash ("\") on the rightmost
screen column.
>> Insert text until you reach the right margin, and keep on inserting.
You'll see a continuation line appear.
>> Use <Delback>s to delete the text until the line fits on one screen
>> Use <DEL>s to delete the text until the line fits on one screen
line again. The continuation line goes away.
You can delete a Newline character just like any other character.
......@@ -342,7 +328,7 @@ Deleting the Newline character between two lines merges them into
one line. If the resulting combined line is too long to fit in the
screen width, it will be displayed with a continuation line.
>> Move the cursor to the beginning of a line and type <Delback>. This
>> Move the cursor to the beginning of a line and type <DEL>. This
merges that line with the previous line.
>> Type <Return> to reinsert the Newline you deleted.
......@@ -357,24 +343,26 @@ You've now learned the most basic way of typing something in
Emacs and correcting errors. You can delete by words or lines
as well. Here is a summary of the delete operations:
<Delback> Delete the character just before the cursor
<DEL> Delete the character just before the cursor
C-d Delete the next character after the cursor
M-<Delback> Kill the word immediately before the cursor
M-<DEL> Kill the word immediately before the cursor
M-d Kill the next word after the cursor
C-k Kill from the cursor position to end of line
M-k Kill to the end of the current sentence
Notice that <Delback> and C-d vs M-<Delback> and M-d extend the parallel
started by C-f and M-f (well, <Delback> is not really a control
character, but let's not worry about that). C-k and M-k are like C-e
and M-e, sort of, in that lines are paired with sentences.
Notice that <DEL> and C-d vs M-<DEL> and M-d extend the parallel
started by C-f and M-f (well, <DEL> is not really a control character,
but let's not worry about that). C-k and M-k are like C-e and M-e,
sort of, in that lines are paired with sentences.
You can also kill any part of the text with one uniform method. Move
to one end of that part, and type C-@ or C-<SPC> (either one). (<SPC>
is the Space bar.) Move to the other end of that part, and type C-w.
That kills all the text between the two positions.
You can also kill a segment of text with one uniform method. Move to
one end of that part, and type C-<SPC>. (<SPC> is the Space bar.)
Next, move the cursor to the other end of the text you intend to kill.
As you do this, Emacs highlights the text between the cursor and the
position where you typed C-<SPC>. Finally, type C-w. This kills all
the text between the two positions.
>> Move the cursor to the Y at the start of the previous paragraph.
>> Type C-<SPC>. Emacs should display a message "Mark set"
......@@ -391,10 +379,10 @@ Reinsertion of killed text is called "yanking". Generally, the
commands that can remove a lot of text kill the text (they are set up so
that you can yank the text), while the commands that remove just one
character, or only remove blank lines and spaces, do deletion (so you
cannot yank that text). <Delback> and C-d do deletion in the simplest
cannot yank that text). <DEL> and C-d do deletion in the simplest
case, with no argument. When given an argument, they kill instead.
>> Move the cursor to the beginning of a line which is not empty.
>> Move the cursor to the beginning of a line which is not empty.
Then type C-k to kill the text on that line.
>> Type C-k a second time. You'll see that it kills the Newline
which follows that line.
......@@ -405,13 +393,13 @@ treats a numeric argument specially: it kills that many lines AND
their contents. This is not mere repetition. C-u 2 C-k kills two
lines and their newlines; typing C-k twice would not do that.
Bringing back killed text is called "yanking". (Think of it as
yanking back, or pulling back, some text that was taken away.) You
can yank the killed text either at the same place where it was killed,
or at some other place in the text you are editing, or even in a
different file. You can yank the same text several times; that makes
multiple copies of it. Some other editors call killing and yanking
"cutting" and "pasting" (see the Glossary in the Emacs manual).
Reinserting killed text is called "yanking". (Think of it as yanking
back, or pulling back, some text that was taken away.) You can yank
the killed text either at the same place where it was killed, or at
some other place in the text you are editing, or even in a different
file. You can yank the same text several times; that makes multiple
copies of it. Some other editors call killing and yanking "cutting"
and "pasting" (see the Glossary in the Emacs manual).
The command for yanking is C-y. It reinserts the last killed text,
at the current cursor position.
......@@ -454,27 +442,25 @@ recent kill).
------
If you make a change to the text, and then decide that it was a
mistake, you can undo the change with the undo command, C-x u.
mistake, you can undo the change with the undo command, C-/.
Normally, C-x u undoes the changes made by one command; if you repeat
the C-x u several times in a row, each repetition undoes one
additional command.
Normally, C-/ undoes the changes made by one command; if you repeat
C-/ several times in a row, each repetition undoes one more command.
But there are two exceptions: commands that do not change the text do
not count (this includes cursor motion commands and scrolling
But there are two exceptions: commands that do not change the text
don't count (this includes cursor motion commands and scrolling
commands), and self-inserting characters are usually handled in groups
of up to 20. (This is to reduce the number of C-x u's you have to
type to undo insertion of text.)
of up to 20. (This is to reduce the number of C-/'s you have to type
to undo insertion of text.)
>> Kill this line with C-k, then type C-x u and it should reappear.
>> Kill this line with C-k, then type C-/ and it should reappear.
C-_ is an alternative undo command; it works just the same as C-x u,
but it is easier to type several times in a row. The disadvantage of
C-_ is that on some keyboards it is not obvious how to type it. That
is why we provide C-x u as well. On some terminals, you can type C-_
by typing / while holding down CONTROL.
C-_ is an alternative undo command; it works exactly the same as C-/.
On some text terminals, typing C-/ actually sends C-_ to Emacs.
Alternatively, C-x u also works exactly like C-/, but is a little less
convenient to type.
A numeric argument to C-_ or C-x u acts as a repeat count.
A numeric argument to C-/, C-_, or C-x u acts as a repeat count.
You can undo deletion of text just as you can undo killing of text.
The distinction between killing something and deleting it affects
......@@ -485,9 +471,9 @@ whether you can yank it with C-y; it makes no difference for undo.
-------
In order to make the text you edit permanent, you must put it in a
file. Otherwise, it will go away when your invocation of Emacs goes
away. In order to put your text in a file, you must "find" the file
before you enter the text. (This is also called "visiting" the file.)
file. Otherwise, it will go away when you exit Emacs. In order to
put your text in a file, you must "find" the file before you enter the
text. (This is also called "visiting" the file.)
Finding a file means that you see the contents of the file within
Emacs. In many ways, it is as if you were editing the file itself.
......@@ -498,17 +484,16 @@ you save, Emacs leaves the original file under a changed name in case
you later decide that your changes were a mistake.
If you look near the bottom of the screen you will see a line that
begins with dashes, and starts with "--:--- TUTORIAL" or something
begins with dashes, and starts with " -:--- TUTORIAL" or something
like that. This part of the screen normally shows the name of the
file that you are visiting. Right now, you are visiting a file called
"TUTORIAL" which is your personal scratch copy of the Emacs tutorial.
When you find a file with Emacs, that file's name will appear in that
precise spot.
file that you are visiting. Right now, you are visiting your personal
copy of the Emacs tutorial, which is called "TUTORIAL". When you find
a file with Emacs, that file's name will appear in that precise spot.
One special thing about the command for finding a file is that you
have to say what file name you want. We say the command "reads an
argument from the terminal" (in this case, the argument is the name of
the file). After you type the command
argument" (in this case, the argument is the name of the file). After
you type the command
C-x C-f Find a file
......@@ -525,13 +510,12 @@ you can cancel the command with C-g.
minibuffer. So you do not find any file.
When you have finished entering the file name, type <Return> to
terminate it. The C-x C-f command goes to work, and finds the file
you chose. The minibuffer disappears when the C-x C-f command is
finished.
terminate it. The minibuffer disappears, and the C-x C-f command goes
to work to find the file you chose.
In a little while the file contents appear on the screen, and you can
edit the contents. When you wish to make your changes permanent,
type the command
The file contents now appear on the screen, and you can edit the
contents. When you wish to make your changes permanent, type the
command
C-x C-s Save the file
......@@ -544,8 +528,9 @@ When saving is finished, Emacs displays the name of the file written.
You should save fairly often, so that you will not lose very much
work if the system should crash (see the section "Auto Save" below).
>> Type C-x C-s, saving your copy of the tutorial.
This should show "Wrote ...TUTORIAL" at the bottom of the screen.
>> Type C-x C-s TUTORIAL <Return>.
This should save this tutorial to a file named TUTORIAL, and show
"Wrote ...TUTORIAL" at the bottom of the screen.
You can find an existing file, to view it or edit it. You can also
find a file which does not already exist. This is the way to create a
......@@ -563,14 +548,9 @@ If you find a second file with C-x C-f, the first file remains
inside Emacs. You can switch back to it by finding it again with
C-x C-f. This way you can get quite a number of files inside Emacs.
>> Create a file named "foo" by typing C-x C-f foo <Return>.
Then insert some text, edit it, and save "foo" by typing C-x C-s.
Finally, type C-x C-f TUTORIAL <Return>
to come back to the tutorial.
Emacs stores each file's text inside an object called a "buffer".
Finding a file makes a new buffer inside Emacs. To see a list of the
buffers that currently exist in your Emacs job, type
buffers that currently exist, type
C-x C-b List buffers
......@@ -589,22 +569,24 @@ that corresponds to a file, you can do it by visiting the file again
with C-x C-f. But there is an easier way: use the C-x b command.
In that command, you have to type the buffer's name.
>> Type C-x b foo <Return> to go back to the buffer "foo" which holds
the text of the file "foo". Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return>
to come back to this tutorial.
>> Create a file named "foo" by typing C-x C-f foo <Return>.
Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return> to come back to this tutorial.
Most of the time, the buffer's name is the same as the file name
(without the file directory part). However, this is not always true.
The buffer list you make with C-x C-b always shows you the name of
every buffer.
The buffer list you make with C-x C-b shows you both the buffer name
and the file name of every buffer.
ANY text you see in an Emacs window is always part of some buffer.
Some buffers do not correspond to files. For example, the buffer
named "*Buffer List*" does not have any file. It is the buffer which
contains the buffer list that you made with C-x C-b. The buffer named
"*Messages*" also does not correspond to any file; it contains the
messages that have appeared on the bottom line during your Emacs
session.
Some buffers do not correspond to files. The buffer named
"*Buffer List*", which contains the buffer list that you made with
C-x C-b, does not have any file. This TUTORIAL buffer initially did
not have a file, but now it does, because in the previous section you
typed C-x C-s and saved it to a file.
The buffer named "*Messages*" also does not correspond to any file.
This buffer contains the messages that have appeared on the bottom
line during your Emacs session.
>> Type C-x b *Messages* <Return> to look at the buffer of messages.
Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return> to come back to this tutorial.
......@@ -646,23 +628,21 @@ session--this is the command C-x C-c. (Do not worry about losing
changes you have made; C-x C-c offers to save each changed file before
it kills Emacs.)
If you are using a graphical display that supports multiple
applications in parallel, you don't need any special command to move
from Emacs to another application. You can do this with the mouse or
with window manager commands. However, if you're using a text
terminal which can only show one application at a time, you need to
"suspend" Emacs to move to any other program.
If you are using a graphical display, you don't need any special
command to move from Emacs to another application. You can do this
with the mouse or with window manager commands. However, if you're
using a text terminal which can only show one application at a time,
you need to "suspend" Emacs to move to any other program.
C-z is the command to exit Emacs *temporarily*--so that you can go
back to the same Emacs session afterward. When Emacs is running on a
text terminal, C-z "suspends" Emacs; that is, it returns to the shell
but does not destroy the Emacs. In the most common shells, you can
resume Emacs with the `fg' command or with `%emacs'.
but does not destroy the Emacs job. In the most common shells, you
can resume Emacs with the `fg' command or with `%emacs'.
The time to use C-x C-c is when you are about to log out. It's also
the right thing to use to exit an Emacs invoked under mail handling
programs and other miscellaneous utilities, since they may not know
how to cope with suspension of Emacs.
programs and other miscellaneous utilities.
There are many C-x commands. Here is a list of the ones you have learned:
......@@ -683,7 +663,7 @@ bottom of the screen with M-x and you should type the name of the
command; in this case, "replace-string". Just type "repl s<TAB>" and
Emacs will complete the name. (<TAB> is the Tab key, usually found
above the CapsLock or Shift key near the left edge of the keyboard.)
End the command name with <Return>.
Submit the command name with <Return>.
The replace-string command requires two arguments--the string to be
replaced, and the string to replace it with. You must end each
......@@ -729,18 +709,18 @@ shows them to you at the bottom of the screen in an area called the
The line immediately above the echo area is called the "mode line".
The mode line says something like this:
--:**- TUTORIAL 63% L749 (Fundamental)-----------------------
-:**- TUTORIAL 63% L749 (Fundamental)
This line gives useful information about the status of Emacs and
the text you are editing.
You already know what the filename means--it is the file you have
found. NN% indicates your current position in the text; it means that
NN percent of the text is above the top of the screen. If the top of
the file is on the screen, it will say "Top" instead of " 0%". If the
bottom of the text is on the screen, it will say "Bot". If you are
looking at text so small that all of it fits on the screen, the mode
line says "All".
found. NN% indicates your current position in the buffer text; it
means that NN percent of the buffer is above the top of the screen.
If the top of the buffer is on the screen, it will say "Top" instead
of " 0%". If the bottom of the buffer is on the screen, it will say
"Bot". If you are looking at a buffer so small that all of it fits on
the screen, the mode line says "All".
The L and digits indicate position in another way: they give the
current line number of point.
......@@ -783,7 +763,7 @@ differently.
To view documentation on your current major mode, type C-h m.
>> Use C-u C-v once or more to bring this line near the top of screen.
>> Type C-l C-l to bring this line to the top of screen.
>> Type C-h m, to see how Text mode differs from Fundamental mode.
>> Type C-x 1 to remove the documentation from the screen.
......@@ -829,10 +809,10 @@ that paragraph.
* SEARCHING
-----------
Emacs can do searches for strings (these are groups of contiguous
characters or words) either forward through the text or backward
through it. Searching for a string is a cursor motion command;
it moves the cursor to the next place where that string appears.
Emacs can do searches for strings (a "string" is a group of contiguous
characters) either forward through the text or backward through it.
Searching for a string is a cursor motion command; it moves the cursor
to the next place where that string appears.
The Emacs search command is "incremental". This means that the
search happens while you type in the string to search for.
......@@ -850,7 +830,7 @@ you want to search for. <Return> terminates a search.
character to notice what happens to the cursor.
Now you have searched for "cursor", once.
>> Type C-s again, to search for the next occurrence of "cursor".
>> Now type <Delback> four times and see how the cursor moves.
>> Now type <DEL> four times and see how the cursor moves.
>> Type <Return> to terminate the search.
Did you see what happened? Emacs, in an incremental search, tries to
......@@ -859,27 +839,23 @@ go to the next occurrence of 'cursor' just type C-s again. If no such
occurrence exists, Emacs beeps and tells you the search is currently
"failing". C-g would also terminate the search.
(Note that on some systems, typing C-s will freeze the screen and you
will see no further output from Emacs. This indicates that an
operating system "feature" called "flow control" is intercepting the
C-s and not letting it get through to Emacs. To unfreeze the screen,
type C-q.)
If you are in the middle of an incremental search and type <Delback>,
you'll notice that the last character in the search string is erased
and the search backs up to the last place of the search. For
instance, suppose you have typed "c", to search for the first
occurrence of "c". Now if you type "u", the cursor will move
to the first occurrence of "cu". Now type <Delback>. This erases
the "u" from the search string, and the cursor moves back to
the first occurrence of "c".
If you are in the middle of an incremental search and type <DEL>, this
the search "retreats" to an earlier location. If you type <DEL> just
after you had typed C-s to advance to the next occurrence of a search
string, the <DEL> moves the cursor back to an earlier occurrence. If
there are no earlier occurrences, the <DEL> erases the last character
in the search string. For instance, suppose you have typed "c", to
search for the first occurrence of "c". Now if you type "u", the
cursor will move to the first occurrence of "cu". Now type <DEL>.
This erases the "u" from the search string, and the cursor moves back
to the first occurrence of "c".
If you are in the middle of a search and type a control or meta
character (with a few exceptions--characters that are special in
a search, such as C-s and C-r), the search is terminated.
character (with a few exceptions--characters that are special in a
search, such as C-s and C-r), the search is terminated.
The C-s starts a search that looks for any occurrence of the search
string AFTER the current cursor position. If you want to search for
C-s starts a search that looks for any occurrence of the search string
AFTER the current cursor position. If you want to search for
something earlier in the text, type C-r instead. Everything that we
have said about C-s also applies to C-r, except that the direction of
the search is reversed.
......@@ -888,17 +864,17 @@ the search is reversed.
* MULTIPLE WINDOWS
------------------
One of the nice features of Emacs is that you can display more than one
window on the screen at the same time. (Note that Emacs uses the term
"frames"--described in the next section--for what some other
One of the nice features of Emacs is that you can display more than
one window on the screen at the same time. (Note that Emacs uses the
term "frames"--described in the next section--for what some other
applications call "windows". The Emacs manual contains a Glossary of
Emacs terms.)
>> Move the cursor to this line and type C-u 0 C-l (that's CONTROL-L, not
CONTROL-1).
>> Move the cursor to this line and type C-l C-l.
>> Now type C-x 2 which splits the screen into two windows.
Both windows display this tutorial. The cursor stays in the top window.
Both windows display this tutorial. The editing cursor stays in
the top window.
>> Type C-M-v to scroll the bottom window.
(If you do not have a real META key, type <ESC> C-v.)
......@@ -910,23 +886,24 @@ Emacs terms.)
>> Type C-x o again to move the cursor back to the top window.
The cursor in the top window is just where it was before.
You can keep using C-x o to switch between the windows. Each
window has its own cursor position, but only one window actually
shows the cursor. All the ordinary editing commands apply to the
window that the cursor is in. We call this the "selected window".
You can keep using C-x o to switch between the windows. The "selected
window", where most editing takes place, is the one with a prominent
cursor which blinks when you are not typing. The other windows have
their own cursor positions; if you are running Emacs in a graphical
display, those cursors are drawn as unblinking hollow boxes.
The command C-M-v is very useful when you are editing text in one
window and using the other window just for reference. You can keep
the cursor always in the window where you are editing, and advance
through the other window sequentially with C-M-v.
window and using the other window just for reference. Without leaving
the selected window, you can scroll the other window with C-M-v.
C-M-v is an example of a CONTROL-META character. If you have a real
META key, you can type C-M-v by holding down both CONTROL and META while
typing v. It does not matter whether CONTROL or META "comes first,"
because both of these keys act by modifying the characters you type.
C-M-v is an example of a CONTROL-META character. If you have a META
(or Alt) key, you can type C-M-v by holding down both CONTROL and META
while typing v. It does not matter whether CONTROL or META "comes
first," as both of these keys act by modifying the characters you
type.
If you do not have a real META key, and you use <ESC> instead, the
order does matter: you must type <ESC> followed by CONTROL-v, because
If you do not have a META key, and you use <ESC> instead, the order
does matter: you must type <ESC> followed by CONTROL-v, because
CONTROL-<ESC> v will not work. This is because <ESC> is a character
in its own right, not a modifier key.
......@@ -953,10 +930,12 @@ Here is another way to use two windows to display two different things:
* MULTIPLE FRAMES
------------------
Emacs can also create multiple "frames" (unless you are using a
text-only terminal). A frame is what we call one collection of
windows, together with its menus, scroll bars, echo area, etc.
(Some other applications call a frame a "window".)
Emacs can also create multiple "frames". A frame is what we call one
collection of windows, together with its menus, scroll bars, echo
area, etc. On graphical displays, what Emacs calls a "frame" is what
most other applications call a "window". Multiple graphical frames
can be shown on the screen at the same time. On a text terminal, only
one frame can be shown at a time.
>> Type M-x make-frame <Return>.
See a new frame appear on your screen.
......@@ -967,10 +946,10 @@ There is nothing special about the first frame.
>> Type M-x delete-frame <Return>.
This removes the selected frame.
You can also remove a frame by using the normal method provided by
your window manager (often clicking a button with an "X" at a top
corner of the frame). No information is lost when you close a frame
(or window), it is simply removed from sight and can be restored later.
You can also remove a frame by using the normal method provided by the
graphical system (often clicking a button with an "X" at a top corner
of the frame). If you remove the Emacs job's last frame this way,
that exits Emacs.
* RECURSIVE EDITING LEVELS
......@@ -1035,11 +1014,11 @@ To get more information about a command, use C-h k instead of C-h c.
>> Type C-h k C-p.
This displays the documentation of the function, as well as its
name, in an Emacs window. When you are finished reading the
output, type C-x 1 to get rid of the help text. You do not have
to do this right away. You can do some editing while referring
to the help text, and then type C-x 1.
This displays the documentation of the function, as well as its name,
in an Emacs window. When you are finished reading the output, type
C-x 1 to get rid of that window. You do not have to do this right
away. You can do some editing while referring to the help text, and
then type C-x 1.
Here are some other useful C-h options:
......
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