Commit 1abade00 authored by Richard M. Stallman's avatar Richard M. Stallman
Browse files

Lots of cleanups.

parent bc5fba52
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......@@ -5,31 +5,27 @@
@node M-x, Help, Minibuffer, Top
@chapter Running Commands by Name
Every Emacs command has a name that you can use to run it. Commands
that are used often, or that must be quick to type, are also bound to
keys---short sequences of characters---for convenient use. You can
run them by typing the keys, or run them by name if you don't remember
the keys. Other Emacs commands that do not need to be quick are not
bound to keys; the only way to run them is by name. @xref{Key
Bindings}, for the description of how to bind commands to keys.
Every Emacs command has a name that you can use to run it. For
convenience, many commands also have key bindings. You can run those
commands by typing the keys, or run them by name. Most Emacs commands
have no key bindings, so the only way to run them is by name.
(@xref{Key Bindings}, for how to set up key bindings.)
By convention, a command name consists of one or more words,
separated by hyphens; for example, @code{auto-fill-mode} or
@code{manual-entry}. The use of English words makes the command name
easier to remember than a key made up of obscure characters, even
though it is more characters to type.
@code{manual-entry}. Command names mostly use complete English words
to make them easier to remember.
@kindex M-x
The way to run a command by name is to start with @kbd{M-x}, type the
command name, and finish it with @key{RET}. @kbd{M-x} uses the
minibuffer to read the command name. @key{RET} exits the minibuffer and
runs the command. The string @samp{M-x} appears at the beginning of the
minibuffer as a @dfn{prompt} to remind you to enter the name of a
command to be run. @xref{Minibuffer}, for full information on the
features of the minibuffer.
To run a command by name, start with @kbd{M-x}, type the command
name, then terminate it with @key{RET}. @kbd{M-x} uses the minibuffer
to read the command name. The string @samp{M-x} appears at the
beginning of the minibuffer as a @dfn{prompt} to remind you to enter a
command name to be run. @key{RET} exits the minibuffer and runs the
command. @xref{Minibuffer}, for more information on the minibuffer.
You can use completion to enter the command name. For example, you
can invoke the command @code{forward-char} by name by typing either
to invoke the command @code{forward-char}, you can type
@example
M-x forward-char @key{RET}
......@@ -44,32 +40,30 @@ M-x forw @key{TAB} c @key{RET}
@noindent
Note that @code{forward-char} is the same command that you invoke with
the key @kbd{C-f}. You can run any Emacs command by name using
@kbd{M-x}, whether or not any keys are bound to it.
the key @kbd{C-f}. The existence of a key binding does not stop you
from running the command by name.
If you type @kbd{C-g} while the command name is being read, that
cancels the @kbd{M-x} command and exits the minibuffer, so you end up
back at command level.
To cancel the @kbd{M-x} and not run a command, type @kbd{C-g} instead
of entering the command name. This takes you back to command level.
To pass a numeric argument to the command you are invoking with
@kbd{M-x}, specify the numeric argument before the @kbd{M-x}. @kbd{M-x}
passes the argument along to the command it runs. The argument value
appears in the prompt while the command name is being read.
@kbd{M-x}, specify the numeric argument before @kbd{M-x}. The
argument value appears in the prompt while the command name is being
read, and finally @kbd{M-x} passes the argument to that command.
@vindex suggest-key-bindings
If the command you type has a key binding of its own, Emacs mentions
this in the echo area after running the command. For example, if you
type @kbd{M-x forward-word}, the message says that you can run the
same command more easily by typing @kbd{M-f}. You can turn off these
When the command you run with @kbd{M-x} has a key binding, Emacs
mentions this in the echo area after running the command. For
example, if you type @kbd{M-x forward-word}, the message says that you
can run the same command by typing @kbd{M-f}. You can turn off these
messages by setting the variable @code{suggest-key-bindings} to
@code{nil}.
Normally, when describing in this manual a command that is run by
name, we omit the @key{RET} that is needed to terminate the name. Thus
we might speak of @kbd{M-x auto-fill-mode} rather than @kbd{M-x
auto-fill-mode @key{RET}}. We mention the @key{RET} only when there is
a need to emphasize its presence, such as when we show the command
together with following arguments.
In this manual, when we speak of running a command by name, we often
omit the @key{RET} that terminates the name. Thus we might say
@kbd{M-x auto-fill-mode} rather than @kbd{M-x auto-fill-mode
@key{RET}}. We mention the @key{RET} only for emphasis, such as when
the command is followed by arguments.
@findex execute-extended-command
@kbd{M-x} works by running the command
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