Commit 1be208c2 authored by Paul Eggert's avatar Paul Eggert

Prefer straight quoting in some etc text files

These files are plain text and might be used by non-Emacs apps.
They’re mostly ASCII, so just use straight quotes.
parent 582222b5
...@@ -54,9 +54,9 @@ kick in, provided that you run under GDB. ...@@ -54,9 +54,9 @@ kick in, provided that you run under GDB.
** Getting control to the debugger ** Getting control to the debugger
`Fsignal' is a very useful place to put a breakpoint in. All Lisp 'Fsignal' is a very useful place to put a breakpoint in. All Lisp
errors go through there. If you are only interested in errors that errors go through there. If you are only interested in errors that
would fire the debugger, breaking at `maybe_call_debugger' is useful. would fire the debugger, breaking at 'maybe_call_debugger' is useful.
It is useful, when debugging, to have a guaranteed way to return to It is useful, when debugging, to have a guaranteed way to return to
the debugger at any time. When using X, this is easy: type C-z at the the debugger at any time. When using X, this is easy: type C-z at the
...@@ -70,10 +70,10 @@ On modern POSIX systems, you can override that with this command: ...@@ -70,10 +70,10 @@ On modern POSIX systems, you can override that with this command:
handle SIGINT stop nopass handle SIGINT stop nopass
After this `handle' command, SIGINT will return control to GDB. If After this 'handle' command, SIGINT will return control to GDB. If
you want the C-g to cause a QUIT within Emacs as well, omit the `nopass'. you want the C-g to cause a QUIT within Emacs as well, omit the 'nopass'.
A technique that can work when `handle SIGINT' does not is to store A technique that can work when 'handle SIGINT' does not is to store
the code for some character into the variable stop_character. Thus, the code for some character into the variable stop_character. Thus,
set stop_character = 29 set stop_character = 29
...@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@ the code for some character into the variable stop_character. Thus, ...@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@ the code for some character into the variable stop_character. Thus,
makes Control-] (decimal code 29) the stop character. makes Control-] (decimal code 29) the stop character.
Typing Control-] will cause immediate stop. You cannot Typing Control-] will cause immediate stop. You cannot
use the set command until the inferior process has been started. use the set command until the inferior process has been started.
Put a breakpoint early in `main', or suspend the Emacs, Put a breakpoint early in 'main', or suspend the Emacs,
to get an opportunity to do the set command. to get an opportunity to do the set command.
Another technique for get control to the debugger is to put a Another technique for get control to the debugger is to put a
...@@ -91,7 +91,7 @@ is Fredraw_display, which you can invoke at will interactively with ...@@ -91,7 +91,7 @@ is Fredraw_display, which you can invoke at will interactively with
When Emacs is running in a terminal, it is sometimes useful to use a separate When Emacs is running in a terminal, it is sometimes useful to use a separate
terminal for the debug session. This can be done by starting Emacs as usual, terminal for the debug session. This can be done by starting Emacs as usual,
then attaching to it from gdb with the `attach' command which is explained in then attaching to it from gdb with the 'attach' command which is explained in
the node "Attach" of the GDB manual. the node "Attach" of the GDB manual.
On MS-Windows, you can start Emacs in its own separate terminal by On MS-Windows, you can start Emacs in its own separate terminal by
...@@ -103,36 +103,36 @@ setting the new-console option before running Emacs under GDB: ...@@ -103,36 +103,36 @@ setting the new-console option before running Emacs under GDB:
** Examining Lisp object values. ** Examining Lisp object values.
When you have a live process to debug, and it has not encountered a When you have a live process to debug, and it has not encountered a
fatal error, you can use the GDB command `pr'. First print the value fatal error, you can use the GDB command 'pr'. First print the value
in the ordinary way, with the `p' command. Then type `pr' with no in the ordinary way, with the 'p' command. Then type 'pr' with no
arguments. This calls a subroutine which uses the Lisp printer. arguments. This calls a subroutine which uses the Lisp printer.
You can also use `pp value' to print the emacs value directly. You can also use 'pp value' to print the emacs value directly.
To see the current value of a Lisp Variable, use `pv variable'. To see the current value of a Lisp Variable, use 'pv variable'.
Note: It is not a good idea to try `pr', `pp', or `pv' if you know that Emacs Note: It is not a good idea to try 'pr', 'pp', or 'pv' if you know that Emacs
is in deep trouble: its stack smashed (e.g., if it encountered SIGSEGV is in deep trouble: its stack smashed (e.g., if it encountered SIGSEGV
due to stack overflow), or crucial data structures, such as `obarray', due to stack overflow), or crucial data structures, such as 'obarray',
corrupted, etc. In such cases, the Emacs subroutine called by `pr' corrupted, etc. In such cases, the Emacs subroutine called by 'pr'
might make more damage, like overwrite some data that is important for might make more damage, like overwrite some data that is important for
debugging the original problem. debugging the original problem.
Also, on some systems it is impossible to use `pr' if you stopped Also, on some systems it is impossible to use 'pr' if you stopped
Emacs while it was inside `select'. This is in fact what happens if Emacs while it was inside 'select'. This is in fact what happens if
you stop Emacs while it is waiting. In such a situation, don't try to you stop Emacs while it is waiting. In such a situation, don't try to
use `pr'. Instead, use `s' to step out of the system call. Then use 'pr'. Instead, use 's' to step out of the system call. Then
Emacs will be between instructions and capable of handling `pr'. Emacs will be between instructions and capable of handling 'pr'.
If you can't use `pr' command, for whatever reason, you can use the If you can't use 'pr' command, for whatever reason, you can use the
`xpr' command to print out the data type and value of the last data 'xpr' command to print out the data type and value of the last data
value, For example: value, For example:
p it->object p it->object
xpr xpr
You may also analyze data values using lower-level commands. Use the You may also analyze data values using lower-level commands. Use the
`xtype' command to print out the data type of the last data value. 'xtype' command to print out the data type of the last data value.
Once you know the data type, use the command that corresponds to that Once you know the data type, use the command that corresponds to that
type. Here are these commands: type. Here are these commands:
...@@ -181,20 +181,20 @@ Then Emacs hits the breakpoint: ...@@ -181,20 +181,20 @@ Then Emacs hits the breakpoint:
[...] [...]
} }
Now we can use `pr' to print the frame parameters: Now we can use 'pr' to print the frame parameters:
(gdb) pp $->param_alist (gdb) pp $->param_alist
((background-mode . light) (display-type . color) [...]) ((background-mode . light) (display-type . color) [...])
The Emacs C code heavily uses macros defined in lisp.h. So suppose The Emacs C code heavily uses macros defined in lisp.h. So suppose
we want the address of the l-value expression near the bottom of we want the address of the l-value expression near the bottom of
`add_command_key' from keyboard.c: 'add_command_key' from keyboard.c:
XVECTOR (this_command_keys)->contents[this_command_key_count++] = key; XVECTOR (this_command_keys)->contents[this_command_key_count++] = key;
XVECTOR is a macro, so GDB only knows about it if Emacs has been compiled with XVECTOR is a macro, so GDB only knows about it if Emacs has been compiled with
preprocessor macro information. GCC provides this if you specify the options preprocessor macro information. GCC provides this if you specify the options
`-gdwarf-N' (where N is 2 or higher) and `-g3'. In this case, GDB can '-gdwarf-N' (where N is 2 or higher) and '-g3'. In this case, GDB can
evaluate expressions like "p XVECTOR (this_command_keys)". evaluate expressions like "p XVECTOR (this_command_keys)".
When this information isn't available, you can use the xvector command in GDB When this information isn't available, you can use the xvector command in GDB
...@@ -210,20 +210,20 @@ to get the same result. Here is how: ...@@ -210,20 +210,20 @@ to get the same result. Here is how:
(gdb) p &$ (gdb) p &$
$4 = (int *) 0x411008 $4 = (int *) 0x411008
Here's a related example of macros and the GDB `define' command. Here's a related example of macros and the GDB 'define' command.
There are many Lisp vectors such as `recent_keys', which contains the There are many Lisp vectors such as 'recent_keys', which contains the
last 300 keystrokes. We can print this Lisp vector last 300 keystrokes. We can print this Lisp vector
p recent_keys p recent_keys
pr pr
But this may be inconvenient, since `recent_keys' is much more verbose But this may be inconvenient, since 'recent_keys' is much more verbose
than `C-h l'. We might want to print only the last 10 elements of than 'C-h l'. We might want to print only the last 10 elements of
this vector. `recent_keys' is updated in keyboard.c by the command this vector. 'recent_keys' is updated in keyboard.c by the command
XVECTOR (recent_keys)->contents[recent_keys_index] = c; XVECTOR (recent_keys)->contents[recent_keys_index] = c;
So we define a GDB command `xvector-elts', so the last 10 keystrokes So we define a GDB command 'xvector-elts', so the last 10 keystrokes
are printed by are printed by
xvector-elts recent_keys recent_keys_index 10 xvector-elts recent_keys recent_keys_index 10
...@@ -242,15 +242,15 @@ where you can define xvector-elts as follows: ...@@ -242,15 +242,15 @@ where you can define xvector-elts as follows:
document xvector-elts document xvector-elts
Prints a range of elements of a Lisp vector. Prints a range of elements of a Lisp vector.
xvector-elts v n i xvector-elts v n i
prints `i' elements of the vector `v' ending at the index `n'. prints 'i' elements of the vector 'v' ending at the index 'n'.
end end
** Getting Lisp-level backtrace information within GDB ** Getting Lisp-level backtrace information within GDB
The most convenient way is to use the `xbacktrace' command. This The most convenient way is to use the 'xbacktrace' command. This
shows the names of the Lisp functions that are currently active. shows the names of the Lisp functions that are currently active.
If that doesn't work (e.g., because the `backtrace_list' structure is If that doesn't work (e.g., because the 'backtrace_list' structure is
corrupted), type "bt" at the GDB prompt, to produce the C-level corrupted), type "bt" at the GDB prompt, to produce the C-level
backtrace, and look for stack frames that call Ffuncall. Select them backtrace, and look for stack frames that call Ffuncall. Select them
one by one in GDB, by typing "up N", where N is the appropriate number one by one in GDB, by typing "up N", where N is the appropriate number
...@@ -291,25 +291,25 @@ some redisplay optimizations produce wrong results. (You know that redisplay ...@@ -291,25 +291,25 @@ some redisplay optimizations produce wrong results. (You know that redisplay
optimizations might be involved if "M-x redraw-display RET", or even just optimizations might be involved if "M-x redraw-display RET", or even just
typing "M-x", causes Emacs to correct the bad display.) Since the cursor typing "M-x", causes Emacs to correct the bad display.) Since the cursor
blinking feature triggers periodic redisplay cycles, we recommend disabling blinking feature triggers periodic redisplay cycles, we recommend disabling
`blink-cursor-mode' before invoking `trace-redisplay', so that you have less 'blink-cursor-mode' before invoking 'trace-redisplay', so that you have less
clutter in the trace. You can also have up to 30 last trace messages dumped to clutter in the trace. You can also have up to 30 last trace messages dumped to
standard error by invoking the `dump-redisplay-history' command. standard error by invoking the 'dump-redisplay-history' command.
To find the code paths which were taken by the display engine, search xdisp.c To find the code paths which were taken by the display engine, search xdisp.c
for the trace messages you see. for the trace messages you see.
The command `dump-glyph-matrix' is useful for producing on standard error The command 'dump-glyph-matrix' is useful for producing on standard error
stream a full dump of the selected window's glyph matrix. See the function's stream a full dump of the selected window's glyph matrix. See the function's
doc string for more details. If you are debugging redisplay issues in doc string for more details. If you are debugging redisplay issues in
text-mode frames, you may find the command `dump-frame-glyph-matrix' useful. text-mode frames, you may find the command 'dump-frame-glyph-matrix' useful.
Other commands useful for debugging redisplay are `dump-glyph-row' and Other commands useful for debugging redisplay are 'dump-glyph-row' and
`dump-tool-bar-row'. 'dump-tool-bar-row'.
If you run Emacs under GDB, you can print the contents of any glyph matrix by If you run Emacs under GDB, you can print the contents of any glyph matrix by
just calling that function with the matrix as its argument. For example, the just calling that function with the matrix as its argument. For example, the
following command will print the contents of the current matrix of the window following command will print the contents of the current matrix of the window
whose pointer is in `w': whose pointer is in 'w':
(gdb) p dump_glyph_matrix (w->current_matrix, 2) (gdb) p dump_glyph_matrix (w->current_matrix, 2)
...@@ -321,51 +321,51 @@ disabled. Configuring Emacs with --enable-checking='yes,glyphs' enables it. ...@@ -321,51 +321,51 @@ disabled. Configuring Emacs with --enable-checking='yes,glyphs' enables it.
Building Emacs like that activates many assertions which scrutinize Building Emacs like that activates many assertions which scrutinize
display code operation more than Emacs does normally. (To see the display code operation more than Emacs does normally. (To see the
code which tests these assertions, look for calls to the `eassert' code which tests these assertions, look for calls to the 'eassert'
macros.) Any assertion that is reported to fail should be investigated. macros.) Any assertion that is reported to fail should be investigated.
When you debug display problems running emacs under X, you can use When you debug display problems running emacs under X, you can use
the `ff' command to flush all pending display updates to the screen. the 'ff' command to flush all pending display updates to the screen.
The src/.gdbinit file defines many useful commands for dumping redisplay The src/.gdbinit file defines many useful commands for dumping redisplay
related data structures in a terse and user-friendly format: related data structures in a terse and user-friendly format:
`ppt' prints value of PT, narrowing, and gap in current buffer. 'ppt' prints value of PT, narrowing, and gap in current buffer.
`pit' dumps the current display iterator `it'. 'pit' dumps the current display iterator 'it'.
`pwin' dumps the current window 'win'. 'pwin' dumps the current window 'win'.
`prow' dumps the current glyph_row `row'. 'prow' dumps the current glyph_row 'row'.
`pg' dumps the current glyph `glyph'. 'pg' dumps the current glyph 'glyph'.
`pgi' dumps the next glyph. 'pgi' dumps the next glyph.
`pgrow' dumps all glyphs in current glyph_row `row'. 'pgrow' dumps all glyphs in current glyph_row 'row'.
`pcursor' dumps current output_cursor. 'pcursor' dumps current output_cursor.
The above commands also exist in a version with an `x' suffix which takes an The above commands also exist in a version with an 'x' suffix which takes an
object of the relevant type as argument. For example, `pgrowx' dumps all object of the relevant type as argument. For example, 'pgrowx' dumps all
glyphs in its argument, which must be of type `struct glyph_row'. glyphs in its argument, which must be of type 'struct glyph_row'.
Since redisplay is performed by Emacs very frequently, you need to place your Since redisplay is performed by Emacs very frequently, you need to place your
breakpoints cleverly to avoid hitting them all the time, when the issue you are breakpoints cleverly to avoid hitting them all the time, when the issue you are
debugging did not (yet) happen. Here are some useful techniques for that: debugging did not (yet) happen. Here are some useful techniques for that:
. Put a breakpoint at `Fredraw_display' before running Emacs. Then do . Put a breakpoint at 'Fredraw_display' before running Emacs. Then do
whatever is required to reproduce the bad display, and invoke "M-x whatever is required to reproduce the bad display, and invoke "M-x
redraw-display". The debugger will kick in, and you can set or enable redraw-display". The debugger will kick in, and you can set or enable
breakpoints in strategic places, knowing that the bad display will be breakpoints in strategic places, knowing that the bad display will be
redrawn from scratch. redrawn from scratch.
. For debugging incorrect cursor position, a good place to put a breakpoint is . For debugging incorrect cursor position, a good place to put a breakpoint is
in `set_cursor_from_row'. The first time this function is called as part of in 'set_cursor_from_row'. The first time this function is called as part of
`redraw-display', Emacs is redrawing the minibuffer window, which is usually 'redraw-display', Emacs is redrawing the minibuffer window, which is usually
not what you want; type "continue" to get to the call you want. In general, not what you want; type "continue" to get to the call you want. In general,
always make sure `set_cursor_from_row' is called for the right window and always make sure 'set_cursor_from_row' is called for the right window and
buffer by examining the value of w->contents: it should be the buffer whose buffer by examining the value of w->contents: it should be the buffer whose
display you are debugging. display you are debugging.
. `set_cursor_from_row' is also a good place to look at the contents of a . 'set_cursor_from_row' is also a good place to look at the contents of a
screen line (a.k.a. "glyph row"), by means of the `pgrow' GDB command. Of screen line (a.k.a. "glyph row"), by means of the 'pgrow' GDB command. Of
course, you need first to make sure the cursor is on the screen line which course, you need first to make sure the cursor is on the screen line which
you want to investigate. If you have set a breakpoint in `Fredraw_display', you want to investigate. If you have set a breakpoint in 'Fredraw_display',
as advised above, move cursor to that line before invoking `redraw-display'. as advised above, move cursor to that line before invoking 'redraw-display'.
. If the problem happens only at some specific buffer position or for some . If the problem happens only at some specific buffer position or for some
specific rarely-used character, you can make your breakpoints conditional on specific rarely-used character, you can make your breakpoints conditional on
...@@ -383,14 +383,14 @@ debugging did not (yet) happen. Here are some useful techniques for that: ...@@ -383,14 +383,14 @@ debugging did not (yet) happen. Here are some useful techniques for that:
. You can also make the breakpoints conditional on what object is being used . You can also make the breakpoints conditional on what object is being used
for producing glyphs for display. The it->method member has the value for producing glyphs for display. The it->method member has the value
GET_FROM_BUFFER for displaying buffer contents, GET_FROM_STRING for GET_FROM_BUFFER for displaying buffer contents, GET_FROM_STRING for
displaying a Lisp string (e.g., a `display' property or an overlay string), displaying a Lisp string (e.g., a 'display' property or an overlay string),
GET_FROM_IMAGE for displaying an image, etc. See `enum it_method' in GET_FROM_IMAGE for displaying an image, etc. See 'enum it_method' in
dispextern.h for the full list of values. dispextern.h for the full list of values.
** Following longjmp call. ** Following longjmp call.
Recent versions of glibc (2.4+?) encrypt stored values for setjmp/longjmp which Recent versions of glibc (2.4+?) encrypt stored values for setjmp/longjmp which
prevents GDB from being able to follow a longjmp call using `next'. To prevents GDB from being able to follow a longjmp call using 'next'. To
disable this protection you need to set the environment variable disable this protection you need to set the environment variable
LD_POINTER_GUARD to 0. LD_POINTER_GUARD to 0.
...@@ -400,11 +400,11 @@ Debugging with GDB in Emacs offers some advantages over the command line (See ...@@ -400,11 +400,11 @@ Debugging with GDB in Emacs offers some advantages over the command line (See
the GDB Graphical Interface node of the Emacs manual). There are also some the GDB Graphical Interface node of the Emacs manual). There are also some
features available just for debugging Emacs: features available just for debugging Emacs:
1) The command gud-pp is available on the tool bar (the `pp' icon) and 1) The command gud-pp is available on the tool bar (the 'pp' icon) and
allows the user to print the s-expression of the variable at point, allows the user to print the s-expression of the variable at point,
in the GUD buffer. in the GUD buffer.
2) Pressing `p' on a component of a watch expression that is a lisp object 2) Pressing 'p' on a component of a watch expression that is a lisp object
in the speedbar prints its s-expression in the GUD buffer. in the speedbar prints its s-expression in the GUD buffer.
3) The STOP button on the tool bar is adjusted so that it sends SIGTSTP 3) The STOP button on the tool bar is adjusted so that it sends SIGTSTP
...@@ -415,11 +415,11 @@ features available just for debugging Emacs: ...@@ -415,11 +415,11 @@ features available just for debugging Emacs:
** Debugging what happens while preloading and dumping Emacs ** Debugging what happens while preloading and dumping Emacs
Debugging `temacs' is useful when you want to establish whether a Debugging 'temacs' is useful when you want to establish whether a
problem happens in an undumped Emacs. To run `temacs' under a problem happens in an undumped Emacs. To run 'temacs' under a
debugger, type "gdb temacs", then start it with `r -batch -l loadup'. debugger, type "gdb temacs", then start it with 'r -batch -l loadup'.
If you need to debug what happens during dumping, start it with `r -batch -l If you need to debug what happens during dumping, start it with 'r -batch -l
loadup dump' instead. For debugging the bootstrap dumping, use "loadup loadup dump' instead. For debugging the bootstrap dumping, use "loadup
bootstrap" instead of "loadup dump". bootstrap" instead of "loadup dump".
...@@ -444,7 +444,7 @@ option, like this: ...@@ -444,7 +444,7 @@ option, like this:
emacs -xrm "emacs.synchronous: true" emacs -xrm "emacs.synchronous: true"
Setting a breakpoint in the function `x_error_quitter' and looking at Setting a breakpoint in the function 'x_error_quitter' and looking at
the backtrace when Emacs stops inside that function will show what the backtrace when Emacs stops inside that function will show what
code causes the X protocol errors. code causes the X protocol errors.
...@@ -455,25 +455,25 @@ procedure: ...@@ -455,25 +455,25 @@ procedure:
- Run Emacs under a debugger and put a breakpoint inside the - Run Emacs under a debugger and put a breakpoint inside the
primitive function which, when called from Lisp, triggers the X primitive function which, when called from Lisp, triggers the X
protocol errors. For example, if the errors happen when you protocol errors. For example, if the errors happen when you
delete a frame, put a breakpoint inside `Fdelete_frame'. delete a frame, put a breakpoint inside 'Fdelete_frame'.
- When the breakpoint breaks, step through the code, looking for - When the breakpoint breaks, step through the code, looking for
calls to X functions (the ones whose names begin with "X" or calls to X functions (the ones whose names begin with "X" or
"Xt" or "Xm"). "Xt" or "Xm").
- Insert calls to `XSync' before and after each call to the X - Insert calls to 'XSync' before and after each call to the X
functions, like this: functions, like this:
XSync (f->output_data.x->display_info->display, 0); XSync (f->output_data.x->display_info->display, 0);
where `f' is the pointer to the `struct frame' of the selected where 'f' is the pointer to the 'struct frame' of the selected
frame, normally available via XFRAME (selected_frame). (Most frame, normally available via XFRAME (selected_frame). (Most
functions which call X already have some variable that holds the functions which call X already have some variable that holds the
pointer to the frame, perhaps called `f' or `sf', so you shouldn't pointer to the frame, perhaps called 'f' or 'sf', so you shouldn't
need to compute it.) need to compute it.)
If your debugger can call functions in the program being debugged, If your debugger can call functions in the program being debugged,
you should be able to issue the calls to `XSync' without recompiling you should be able to issue the calls to 'XSync' without recompiling
Emacs. For example, with GDB, just type: Emacs. For example, with GDB, just type:
call XSync (f->output_data.x->display_info->display, 0) call XSync (f->output_data.x->display_info->display, 0)
...@@ -484,8 +484,8 @@ procedure: ...@@ -484,8 +484,8 @@ procedure:
Either way, systematically step through the code and issue these Either way, systematically step through the code and issue these
calls until you find the first X function called by Emacs after calls until you find the first X function called by Emacs after
which a call to `XSync' winds up in the function which a call to 'XSync' winds up in the function
`x_error_quitter'. The first X function call for which this 'x_error_quitter'. The first X function call for which this
happens is the one that generated the X protocol error. happens is the one that generated the X protocol error.
- You should now look around this offending X call and try to figure - You should now look around this offending X call and try to figure
...@@ -506,7 +506,7 @@ to start debugging. ...@@ -506,7 +506,7 @@ to start debugging.
** If the symptom of the bug is that Emacs fails to respond ** If the symptom of the bug is that Emacs fails to respond
Don't assume Emacs is `hung'--it may instead be in an infinite loop. Don't assume Emacs is 'hung'--it may instead be in an infinite loop.
To find out which, make the problem happen under GDB and stop Emacs To find out which, make the problem happen under GDB and stop Emacs
once it is not responding. (If Emacs is using X Windows directly, you once it is not responding. (If Emacs is using X Windows directly, you
can stop Emacs by typing C-z at the GDB job. On MS-Windows, run Emacs can stop Emacs by typing C-z at the GDB job. On MS-Windows, run Emacs
...@@ -514,8 +514,8 @@ as usual, and then attach GDB to it -- that will usually interrupt ...@@ -514,8 +514,8 @@ as usual, and then attach GDB to it -- that will usually interrupt
whatever Emacs is doing and let you perform the steps described whatever Emacs is doing and let you perform the steps described
below.) below.)
Then try stepping with `step'. If Emacs is hung, the `step' command Then try stepping with 'step'. If Emacs is hung, the 'step' command
won't return. If it is looping, `step' will return. won't return. If it is looping, 'step' will return.
If this shows Emacs is hung in a system call, stop it again and If this shows Emacs is hung in a system call, stop it again and
examine the arguments of the call. If you report the bug, it is very examine the arguments of the call. If you report the bug, it is very
...@@ -524,19 +524,19 @@ what the arguments are. ...@@ -524,19 +524,19 @@ what the arguments are.
If Emacs is in an infinite loop, try to determine where the loop If Emacs is in an infinite loop, try to determine where the loop
starts and ends. The easiest way to do this is to use the GDB command starts and ends. The easiest way to do this is to use the GDB command
`finish'. Each time you use it, Emacs resumes execution until it 'finish'. Each time you use it, Emacs resumes execution until it
exits one stack frame. Keep typing `finish' until it doesn't exits one stack frame. Keep typing 'finish' until it doesn't
return--that means the infinite loop is in the stack frame which you return--that means the infinite loop is in the stack frame which you
just tried to finish. just tried to finish.
Stop Emacs again, and use `finish' repeatedly again until you get back Stop Emacs again, and use 'finish' repeatedly again until you get back
to that frame. Then use `next' to step through that frame. By to that frame. Then use 'next' to step through that frame. By
stepping, you will see where the loop starts and ends. Also, examine stepping, you will see where the loop starts and ends. Also, examine
the data being used in the loop and try to determine why the loop does the data being used in the loop and try to determine why the loop does
not exit when it should. not exit when it should.
On GNU and Unix systems, you can also trying sending Emacs SIGUSR2, On GNU and Unix systems, you can also trying sending Emacs SIGUSR2,
which, if `debug-on-event' has its default value, will cause Emacs to which, if 'debug-on-event' has its default value, will cause Emacs to
attempt to break it out of its current loop and into the Lisp attempt to break it out of its current loop and into the Lisp
debugger. This feature is useful when a C-level debugger is not debugger. This feature is useful when a C-level debugger is not
conveniently available. conveniently available.
...@@ -572,7 +572,7 @@ in such an extremity. Do ...@@ -572,7 +572,7 @@ in such an extremity. Do
17:i 17:i
:r -l loadup (or whatever) :r -l loadup (or whatever)
It is necessary to refer to the file `nmout' to convert It is necessary to refer to the file 'nmout' to convert
numeric addresses into symbols and vice versa. numeric addresses into symbols and vice versa.
It is useful to be running under a window system. It is useful to be running under a window system.
...@@ -591,7 +591,7 @@ screen. To make these records, do ...@@ -591,7 +591,7 @@ screen. To make these records, do
The dribble file contains all characters read by Emacs from the The dribble file contains all characters read by Emacs from the
terminal, and the termscript file contains all characters it sent to terminal, and the termscript file contains all characters it sent to
the terminal. The use of the directory `~/' prevents interference the terminal. The use of the directory '~/' prevents interference
with any other user. with any other user.
If you have irreproducible display problems, put those two expressions If you have irreproducible display problems, put those two expressions
...@@ -600,7 +600,7 @@ you were running, kill it, and rename the two files. Then you can start ...@@ -600,7 +600,7 @@ you were running, kill it, and rename the two files. Then you can start
another Emacs without clobbering those files, and use it to examine them. another Emacs without clobbering those files, and use it to examine them.
An easy way to see if too much text is being redrawn on a terminal is to An easy way to see if too much text is being redrawn on a terminal is to
evaluate `(setq inverse-video t)' before you try the operation you think evaluate '(setq inverse-video t)' before you try the operation you think
will cause too much redrawing. This doesn't refresh the screen, so only will cause too much redrawing. This doesn't refresh the screen, so only
newly drawn text is in inverse video. newly drawn text is in inverse video.
...@@ -608,7 +608,7 @@ newly drawn text is in inverse video. ...@@ -608,7 +608,7 @@ newly drawn text is in inverse video.
If you encounter bugs whereby Emacs built with LessTif grabs all mouse If you encounter bugs whereby Emacs built with LessTif grabs all mouse
and keyboard events, or LessTif menus behave weirdly, it might be and keyboard events, or LessTif menus behave weirdly, it might be
helpful to set the `DEBUGSOURCES' and `DEBUG_FILE' environment helpful to set the 'DEBUGSOURCES' and 'DEBUG_FILE' environment
variables, so that one can see what LessTif was doing at this point. variables, so that one can see what LessTif was doing at this point.
For instance For instance
...@@ -617,7 +617,7 @@ For instance ...@@ -617,7 +617,7 @@ For instance
emacs & emacs &
causes LessTif to print traces from the three named source files to a causes LessTif to print traces from the three named source files to a
file in `/usr/tmp' (that file can get pretty large). The above should file in '/usr/tmp' (that file can get pretty large). The above should
be typed at the shell prompt before invoking Emacs, as shown by the be typed at the shell prompt before invoking Emacs, as shown by the
last line above. last line above.
...@@ -628,29 +628,29 @@ the machine where you started GDB and use the debugger from there. ...@@ -628,29 +628,29 @@ the machine where you started GDB and use the debugger from there.
** Debugging problems which happen in GC ** Debugging problems which happen in GC
The array `last_marked' (defined on alloc.c) can be used to display up The array 'last_marked' (defined on alloc.c) can be used to display up
to 500 last objects marked by the garbage collection process. to 500 last objects marked by the garbage collection process.
Whenever the garbage collector marks a Lisp object, it records the Whenever the garbage collector marks a Lisp object, it records the
pointer to that object in the `last_marked' array, which is maintained pointer to that object in the 'last_marked' array, which is maintained
as a circular buffer. The variable `last_marked_index' holds the as a circular buffer. The variable 'last_marked_index' holds the
index into the `last_marked' array one place beyond where the pointer index into the 'last_marked' array one place beyond where the pointer
to the very last marked object is stored. to the very last marked object is stored.
The single most important goal in debugging GC problems is to find the The single most important goal in debugging GC problems is to find the
Lisp data structure that got corrupted. This is not easy since GC Lisp data structure that got corrupted. This is not easy since GC
changes the tag bits and relocates strings which make it hard to look changes the tag bits and relocates strings which make it hard to look
at Lisp objects with commands such as `pr'. It is sometimes necessary at Lisp objects with commands such as 'pr'. It is sometimes necessary