Commit 34ad0276 authored by Eli Zaretskii's avatar Eli Zaretskii

; etc/DEBUG copedits

* etc/DEBUG: Improve the section on debugging redisplay issues.
Also other minor copyedits.
parent 58eeddf5
......@@ -34,6 +34,13 @@ With GCC and higher optimization levels such as -O2, the
essential. The latter prevents GCC from using the same abort call for
all assertions in a given function, rendering the stack backtrace
useless for identifying the specific failed assertion.
Some versions of GCC support recent versions of the DWARF standard for
debugging info, but default to older versions; for example, they could
support -gdwarf-4 compiler option (for DWARF v4), but default to
version 2 of the DWARF standard. For best results in debugging
abilities, find out the highest version of DWARF your GCC can support,
and use the corresponding -gdwarf-N switch instead of just -g (you
will still need -g3, as in "-gdwarf-4 -g3").
** It is a good idea to run Emacs under GDB (or some other suitable
debugger) *all the time*. Then, when Emacs crashes, you will be able
......@@ -76,11 +83,22 @@ use the set command until the inferior process has been started.
Put a breakpoint early in `main', or suspend the Emacs,
to get an opportunity to do the set command.
Another technique for get control to the debugger is to put a
breakpoint in some rarely used function. One such convenient function
is Fredraw_display, which you can invoke at will interactively with
"M-x redraw-display RET".
When Emacs is running in a terminal, it is sometimes useful to use a separate
terminal for the debug session. This can be done by starting Emacs as usual,
then attaching to it from gdb with the `attach' command which is explained in
the node "Attach" of the GDB manual.
On MS-Windows, you can start Emacs in its own separate terminal by
setting the new-console option before running Emacs under GDB:
(gdb) set new-console 1
(gdb) run
** Examining Lisp object values.
When you have a live process to debug, and it has not encountered a
......@@ -120,6 +138,8 @@ type. Here are these commands:
xint xptr xwindow xmarker xoverlay xmiscfree xintfwd xboolfwd xobjfwd
xbufobjfwd xkbobjfwd xbuflocal xbuffer xsymbol xstring xvector xframe
xwinconfig xcompiled xcons xcar xcdr xsubr xprocess xfloat xscrollbar
xchartable xsubchartable xboolvector xhashtable xlist xcoding
xcharset xfontset xfont xbytecode
Each one of them applies to a certain type or class of types.
(Some of these types are not visible in Lisp, because they exist only
......@@ -138,33 +158,32 @@ Here's an example using concepts explained in the node "Value History"
of the GDB manual to print values associated with the variable
called frame. First, use these commands:
cd src
gdb emacs
b set_frame_buffer_list
r -q
cd src
gdb emacs
b set_frame_buffer_list
r -q
Then Emacs hits the breakpoint:
(gdb) p frame
$1 = 139854428
(gdb) xpr
Lisp_Vectorlike
PVEC_FRAME
$2 = (struct frame *) 0x8560258
"emacs@localhost"
(gdb) p *$
$3 = {
size = 1073742931,
next = 0x85dfe58,
name = 140615219,
[...]
}
(gdb) p frame
$1 = 139854428
(gdb) xpr
Lisp_Vectorlike
PVEC_FRAME
$2 = (struct frame *) 0x8560258
"emacs@localhost"
(gdb) p *$
$3 = {
size = 1073742931,
next = 0x85dfe58,
name = 140615219,
[...]
}
Now we can use `pr' to print the frame parameters:
(gdb) pp $->param_alist
((background-mode . light) (display-type . color) [...])
(gdb) pp $->param_alist
((background-mode . light) (display-type . color) [...])
The Emacs C code heavily uses macros defined in lisp.h. So suppose
we want the address of the l-value expression near the bottom of
......@@ -174,28 +193,28 @@ we want the address of the l-value expression near the bottom of
XVECTOR is a macro, so GDB only knows about it if Emacs has been compiled with
preprocessor macro information. GCC provides this if you specify the options
`-gdwarf-2' and `-g3'. In this case, GDB can evaluate expressions like
"p XVECTOR (this_command_keys)".
`-gdwarf-N' (where N is 2 or higher) and `-g3'. In this case, GDB can
evaluate expressions like "p XVECTOR (this_command_keys)".
When this information isn't available, you can use the xvector command in GDB
to get the same result. Here is how:
(gdb) p this_command_keys
$1 = 1078005760
(gdb) xvector
$2 = (struct Lisp_Vector *) 0x411000
0
(gdb) p $->contents[this_command_key_count]
$3 = 1077872640
(gdb) p &$
$4 = (int *) 0x411008
(gdb) p this_command_keys
$1 = 1078005760
(gdb) xvector
$2 = (struct Lisp_Vector *) 0x411000
0
(gdb) p $->contents[this_command_key_count]
$3 = 1077872640
(gdb) p &$
$4 = (int *) 0x411008
Here's a related example of macros and the GDB `define' command.
There are many Lisp vectors such as `recent_keys', which contains the
last 300 keystrokes. We can print this Lisp vector
p recent_keys
pr
p recent_keys
pr
But this may be inconvenient, since `recent_keys' is much more verbose
than `C-h l'. We might want to print only the last 10 elements of
......@@ -206,24 +225,24 @@ this vector. `recent_keys' is updated in keyboard.c by the command
So we define a GDB command `xvector-elts', so the last 10 keystrokes
are printed by
xvector-elts recent_keys recent_keys_index 10
xvector-elts recent_keys recent_keys_index 10
where you can define xvector-elts as follows:
define xvector-elts
set $i = 0
p $arg0
xvector
set $foo = $
while $i < $arg2
p $foo->contents[$arg1-($i++)]
pr
end
document xvector-elts
Prints a range of elements of a Lisp vector.
xvector-elts v n i
prints `i' elements of the vector `v' ending at the index `n'.
end
define xvector-elts
set $i = 0
p $arg0
xvector
set $foo = $
while $i < $arg2
p $foo->contents[$arg1-($i++)]
pr
end
document xvector-elts
Prints a range of elements of a Lisp vector.
xvector-elts v n i
prints `i' elements of the vector `v' ending at the index `n'.
end
** Getting Lisp-level backtrace information within GDB
......@@ -259,7 +278,53 @@ and, assuming that "xtype" says that args[0] is a symbol:
xsymbol
** Debugging Emacs Redisplay problems
** Debugging Emacs redisplay problems
If you configured Emacs with --enable-checking='glyphs', you can use redisplay
tracing facilities from a running Emacs session.
The command "M-x trace-redisplay RET" will produce a trace of what redisplay
does on the standard error stream. This is very useful for understanding the
code paths taken by the display engine under various conditions, especially if
some redisplay optimizations produce wrong results. (You know that redisplay
optimizations might be involved if "M-x redraw-display RET", or even just
typing "M-x", causes Emacs to correct the bad display.) Since the cursor
blinking feature triggers periodic redisplay cycles, we recommend disabling
`blink-cursor-mode' before invoking `trace-redisplay', so that you have less
clutter in the trace. You can also have up to 30 last trace messages dumped to
standard error by invoking the `dump-redisplay-history' command.
To find the code paths which were taken by the display engine, search xdisp.c
for the trace messages you see.
The command `dump-glyph-matrix' is useful for producing on standard error
stream a full dump of the selected window's glyph matrix. See the function's
doc string for more details. If you are debugging redisplay issues in
text-mode frames, you may find the command `dump-frame-glyph-matrix' useful.
Other commands useful for debugging redisplay are `dump-glyph-row' and
`dump-tool-bar-row'.
If you run Emacs under GDB, you can print the contents of any glyph matrix by
just calling that function with the matrix as its argument. For example, the
following command will print the contents of the current matrix of the window
whose pointer is in `w':
(gdb) p dump_glyph_matrix (w->current_matrix, 2)
(The second argument 2 tells dump_glyph_matrix to print the glyphs in
a long form.)
The Emacs display code includes special debugging code, but it is normally
disabled. Configuring Emacs with --enable-checking='yes,glyphs' enables it.
Building Emacs like that activates many assertions which scrutinize
display code operation more than Emacs does normally. (To see the
code which tests these assertions, look for calls to the `eassert'
macros.) Any assertion that is reported to fail should be investigated.
When you debug display problems running emacs under X, you can use
the `ff' command to flush all pending display updates to the screen.
The src/.gdbinit file defines many useful commands for dumping redisplay
related data structures in a terse and user-friendly format:
......@@ -273,8 +338,53 @@ related data structures in a terse and user-friendly format:
`pgrow' dumps all glyphs in current glyph_row `row'.
`pcursor' dumps current output_cursor.
The above commands also exist in a version with an `x' suffix which
takes an object of the relevant type as argument.
The above commands also exist in a version with an `x' suffix which takes an
object of the relevant type as argument. For example, `pgrowx' dumps all
glyphs in its argument, which must be of type `struct glyph_row'.
Since redisplay is performed by Emacs very frequently, you need to place your
breakpoints cleverly to avoid hitting them all the time, when the issue you are
debugging did not (yet) happen. Here are some useful techniques for that:
. Put a breakpoint at `Fredraw_display' before running Emacs. Then do
whatever is required to reproduce the bad display, and invoke "M-x
redraw-display". The debugger will kick in, and you can set or enable
breakpoints in strategic places, knowing that the bad display will be
redrawn from scratch.
. For debugging incorrect cursor position, a good place to put a breakpoint is
in `set_cursor_from_row'. The first time this function is called as part of
`redraw-display', Emacs is redrawing the minibuffer window, which is usually
not what you want; type "continue" to get to the call you want. In general,
always make sure `set_cursor_from_row' is called for the right window and
buffer by examining the value of w->contents: it should be the buffer whose
display you are debugging.
. `set_cursor_from_row' is also a good place to look at the contents of a
screen line (a.k.a. "glyph row"), by means of the `pgrow' GDB command. Of
course, you need first to make sure the cursor is on the screen line which
you want to investigate. If you have set a breakpoint in `Fredraw_display',
as advised above, move cursor to that line before invoking `redraw-display'.
. If the problem happens only at some specific buffer position or for some
specific rarely-used character, you can make your breakpoints conditional on
those values. The display engine maintains the buffer and string position
it is processing in the it->current member; for example, the buffer
character position is in it->current.pos.charpos. Most redisplay functions
accept a pointer to a 'struct it' object as their argument, so you can make
conditional breakpoints in those functions, like this:
(gdb) break x_produce_glyphs if it->current.pos.charpos == 1234
For conditioning on the character being displayed, use it->c or
it->char_to_display.
. You can also make the breakpoints conditional on what object is being used
for producing glyphs for display. The it->method member has the value
GET_FROM_BUFFER for displaying buffer contents, GET_FROM_STRING for
displaying a Lisp string (e.g., a `display' property or an overlay string),
GET_FROM_IMAGE for displaying an image, etc. See `enum it_method' in
dispextern.h for the full list of values.
** Following longjmp call.
......@@ -304,18 +414,18 @@ features available just for debugging Emacs:
** Debugging what happens while preloading and dumping Emacs
Type `gdb temacs' and start it with `r -batch -l loadup dump'.
Debugging `temacs' is useful when you want to establish whether a
problem happens in an undumped Emacs. To run `temacs' under a
debugger, type "gdb temacs", then start it with `r -batch -l loadup'.
If you need to debug what happens during dumping, start it with `r -batch -l
loadup dump' instead. For debugging the bootstrap dumping, use "loadup
bootstrap" instead of "loadup dump".
If temacs actually succeeds when running under GDB in this way, do not
try to run the dumped Emacs, because it was dumped with the GDB
breakpoints in it.
** Debugging `temacs'
Debugging `temacs' is useful when you want to establish whether a
problem happens in an undumped Emacs. To run `temacs' under a
debugger, type "gdb temacs", then start it with `r -batch -l loadup'.
** If you encounter X protocol errors
The X server normally reports protocol errors asynchronously,
......@@ -469,8 +579,7 @@ Then, if Emacs becomes hopelessly wedged, you can create another
window to do kill -9 in. kill -ILL is often useful too, since that
may make Emacs dump core or return to adb.
** Debugging incorrect screen updating.
** Debugging incorrect screen updating on a text terminal.
To debug Emacs problems that update the screen wrong, it is useful
to have a record of what input you typed and what Emacs sent to the
......@@ -494,40 +603,6 @@ evaluate `(setq inverse-video t)' before you try the operation you think
will cause too much redrawing. This doesn't refresh the screen, so only
newly drawn text is in inverse video.
The Emacs display code includes special debugging code, but it is
normally disabled. You can enable it by building Emacs with the
pre-processing symbol GLYPH_DEBUG defined. Here's one easy way,
suitable for Unix and GNU systems, to build such a debugging version:
MYCPPFLAGS='-DGLYPH_DEBUG=1' make
Building Emacs like that activates many assertions which scrutinize
display code operation more than Emacs does normally. (To see the
code which tests these assertions, look for calls to the `xassert'
macros.) Any assertion that is reported to fail should be investigated.
Building with GLYPH_DEBUG defined also defines several helper
functions which can help debugging display code. One such function is
`dump_glyph_matrix'. If you run Emacs under GDB, you can print the
contents of any glyph matrix by just calling that function with the
matrix as its argument. For example, the following command will print
the contents of the current matrix of the window whose pointer is in `w':
(gdb) p dump_glyph_matrix (w->current_matrix, 2)
(The second argument 2 tells dump_glyph_matrix to print the glyphs in
a long form.) You can dump the selected window's current glyph matrix
interactively with "M-x dump-glyph-matrix RET"; see the documentation
of this function for more details.
Several more functions for debugging display code are available in
Emacs compiled with GLYPH_DEBUG defined; type "C-h f dump- TAB" and
"C-h f trace- TAB" to see the full list.
When you debug display problems running emacs under X, you can use
the `ff' command to flush all pending display updates to the screen.
** Debugging LessTif
If you encounter bugs whereby Emacs built with LessTif grabs all mouse
......@@ -550,7 +625,6 @@ You can arrange for GDB to run on one machine, with the Emacs display
appearing on another. Then, when the bug happens, you can go back to
the machine where you started GDB and use the debugger from there.
** Debugging problems which happen in GC
The array `last_marked' (defined on alloc.c) can be used to display up
......@@ -629,6 +703,12 @@ directed to the xterm window you opened above.
Similar arrangement is possible on a character terminal by using the
`screen' package.
On MS-Windows, you can start Emacs in its own separate terminal by
setting the new-console option before running Emacs under GDB:
(gdb) set new-console 1
(gdb) run
** Running Emacs built with malloc debugging packages
If Emacs exhibits bugs that seem to be related to use of memory
......
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