Commit 385f3fc8 authored by YAMAMOTO Mitsuharu's avatar YAMAMOTO Mitsuharu
Browse files

Change `Mac OS 8 or 9' to `Mac OS Classic'.

(Mac OS): Update feature support status.
(Mac Input): List supported input scripts.  Remove description
about `mac-keyboard-text-encoding'.  Mention mouse button
emulation and related variables.
(Mac International): Mention Central European and Cyrillic
support.  Now `keyboard-coding-system' is dynamically changed.
Add description about coding system for selection.  Add
description about language environment.
(Mac Environment Variables): Mention
`~/.MacOSX/environment.plist'.  Give example of command line
arguments.  Add Preferences support.
(Mac Directories): Explicitly state that this node is for Mac OS
Classic only.
(Mac Font Specs): Mention specification for scalable fonts.  List
supported charsets.  Add preferred way of creating fontsets.  Add
description about `mac-allow-anti-aliasing'.
(Mac Functions): Add descriptions about `mac-set-file-creator',
`mac-get-file-creator', `mac-set-file-type', `mac-get-file-type',
and `mac-get-preference'.
parent 70dc6062
......@@ -3,48 +3,47 @@
@c 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions.
@node Mac OS, MS-DOS, Antinews, Top
@appendix Emacs and the Mac OS
@appendix Emacs and Mac OS
@cindex Mac OS
@cindex Macintosh
Emacs built on Mac OS X supports most of its major features:
multiple frames, colors, scroll bars, menu bars, use of the mouse,
fontsets, international characters, input methods, coding systems,
asynchronous and synchronous subprocesses, unexec (@code{dump-emacs}),
and networking (@code{open-network-stream}). Support for various
image file formats has not been implemented yet.
The following features of Emacs are not yet supported on the Mac OS
8 or 9: unexec (@code{dump-emacs}), asynchronous subprocesses
(@code{start-process}), and networking (@code{open-network-stream}).
As a result, packages such as Gnus, GUD, and Comint do not work.
However, synchronous subprocesses (@code{call-process}) are supported.
Since external programs to handle commands such as @code{print-buffer}
and @code{diff} are not available on Mac OS 8 or 9, they are not
supported.
Most of the features that are supported work in the same way as on
other platforms and are therefore documented in the rest of this
manual. This section describes the peculiarities of using Emacs under
the Mac OS.
This section briefly describes the peculiarities of using Emacs
under Mac OS with native window system support. For Mac OS X, Emacs
can be built either without window system support, with X11, or with
Carbon API. This section only applies to the Carbon build. For Mac
OS Classic, Emacs can be built with or without Carbon API, and this
section applies to either of them because they run on the native
window system.
Emacs built on Mac OS X supports most of its major features except
display support of PostScript images. The following features of Emacs
are not supported on Mac OS Classic: unexec (@code{dump-emacs}),
asynchronous subprocesses (@code{start-process}), and networking
(@code{open-network-stream}). As a result, packages such as Gnus,
GUD, and Comint do not work. Synchronous subprocesses
(@code{call-process}) are supported on non-Carbon build, but
specially-crafted external programs are needed. Since external
programs to handle commands such as @code{print-buffer} and
@code{diff} are not available on Mac OS Classic, they are not
supported. Non-Carbon build on Mac OS Classic does not support some
features such as file dialogs, drag-and-drop, and Unicode menus.
@menu
* Input: Mac Input. Keyboard input on the Mac.
* Intl: Mac International. International character sets on the Mac.
* Input: Mac Input. Keyboard and mouse input on Mac.
* Intl: Mac International. International character sets on Mac.
* Env: Mac Environment Variables. Setting environment variables for Emacs.
* Directories: Mac Directories. Volumes and directories on the Mac.
* Font: Mac Font Specs. Specifying fonts on the Mac.
* Directories: Mac Directories. Volumes and directories on Mac.
* Font: Mac Font Specs. Specifying fonts on Mac.
* Functions: Mac Functions. Mac-specific Lisp functions.
@end menu
@node Mac Input
@section Keyboard Input on the Mac
@section Keyboard and Mouse Input on Mac
@cindex Meta (Mac OS)
@cindex keyboard coding (Mac OS)
@vindex mac-command-key-is-meta
@vindex mac-keyboard-text-encoding
On the Mac, Emacs can use either the @key{option} key or the
@vindex mac-command-key-is-meta
On Mac, Emacs can use either the @key{option} key or the
@key{command} key as the @key{META} key. If the value of the variable
@code{mac-command-key-is-meta} is non-@code{nil} (its default value),
Emacs uses the @key{command} key as the @key{META} key. Otherwise it
......@@ -55,89 +54,124 @@ so that dead-key processing with the @key{option} key will still work. This is
useful for entering non-@acronym{ASCII} Latin characters directly from the Mac
keyboard, for example.
Emacs recognizes the setting in the Keyboard control panel and
supports international and alternative keyboard layouts (e.g., Dvorak).
Selecting one of the layouts from the keyboard layout pull-down menu
will affect how the keys typed on the keyboard are interpreted.
The Mac OS intercepts and handles certain key combinations (e.g.,
Emacs recognizes the setting in the Keyboard control panel (Mac OS
Classic) or the International system preference pane (Mac OS X) and
supports international and alternative keyboard layouts (e.g., Dvorak)
if its script is either Roman, Japanese, Traditional Chinese, Korean,
Cyrillic, Simplified Chinese, or Central European. Keyboard layouts
based on Unicode may not work properly. Selecting one of the layouts
from the keyboard layout pull-down menu will affect how the keys typed
on the keyboard are interpreted.
@vindex mac-pass-command-to-system
@vindex mac-pass-control-to-system
Mac OS intercepts and handles certain key combinations (e.g.,
@key{command}-@key{SPC} for switching input languages). These will not
be passed to Emacs.
The Mac keyboard ordinarily generates characters in the Mac Roman
encoding. To use it for entering ISO Latin-1 characters directly, set
the value of the variable @code{mac-keyboard-text-encoding} to
@code{kTextEncodingISOLatin1}. Note that not all Mac Roman characters
that can be entered at the keyboard can be converted to ISO Latin-1
characters.
To enter ISO Latin-2 characters directly from the Mac keyboard, set
the value of @code{mac-keyboard-text-encoding} to
@code{kTextEncodingISOLatin2}. Then let Emacs know that the keyboard
generates Latin-2 codes, by typing @kbd{C-x @key{RET} k iso-latin-2
@key{RET}}. To make this setting permanent, put this in your
@file{.emacs} init file:
@lisp
(set-keyboard-coding-system 'iso-latin-2)
@end lisp
be passed to Emacs. One can disable this interception by setting
@code{mac-pass-command-to-system} or @code{mac-pass-control-to-system}
to @code{nil}.
@vindex mac-emulate-three-button-mouse
Especially for one-button mice, the multiple button feature can be
emulated by setting @code{mac-emulate-three-button-mouse} to @code{t}
or @code{reverse}. If set to @code{t} (@code{reverse}, respectively),
pressing the mouse button with the @key{option} key is recognized as
the second (third) button, and that with the @key{command} key is
recognized as the third (second) button.
@vindex mac-wheel-button-is-mouse-2
For multi-button mice, the wheel button and the secondary button are
recognized as the second and the third button, respectively. If
@code{mac-wheel-button-is-mouse-2} is set to @code{nil}, their roles
are exchanged.
@node Mac International
@section International Character Set Support on the Mac
@section International Character Set Support on Mac
@cindex Mac Roman coding system
@cindex clipboard support (Mac OS)
The Mac uses a non-standard encoding for the upper 128 single-byte
characters. It also deviates from the ISO 2022 standard by using
character codes in the range 128-159. The coding system
@code{mac-roman} is used to represent this Mac encoding. It is used
for editing files stored in this native encoding, and for displaying
file names in Dired mode.
Any native (non-symbol) Mac font can be used to correctly display
characters in the @code{mac-roman} coding system.
Mac uses non-standard encodings for the upper 128 single-byte
characters. They also deviate from the ISO 2022 standard by using
character codes in the range 128-159. The coding systems
@code{mac-roman}, @code{mac-centraleurroman}, and @code{mac-cyrillic}
are used to represent these Mac encodings.
The fontset @code{fontset-mac} is created automatically when Emacs
is run on the Mac. It displays characters in the @code{mac-roman}
coding system using 12-point Monaco.
To insert characters directly in the @code{mac-roman} coding system,
type @kbd{C-x @key{RET} k mac-roman @key{RET}}, customize the variable
@code{keyboard-coding-system}, or put this in your init file:
@lisp
(set-keyboard-coding-system 'mac-roman)
@end lisp
@noindent
This is useful for editing documents in native Mac encoding.
is run on Mac, and used by default. It displays as many kinds of
characters as possible using 12-point Monaco as a base font. If you
see some character as a hollow box with this fontset, then it's almost
impossible to display it only by customizing font settings (@pxref{Mac
Font Specs}).
You can use input methods provided either by LEIM (@pxref{Input
Methods}) or the Mac OS to enter international characters.
To use the former, see the International Character Set Support section
of the manual (@pxref{International}).
Methods}) or Mac OS to enter international characters. To use the
former, see the International Character Set Support section of the
manual (@pxref{International}).
To use input methods provided by the Mac OS, set the keyboard coding
system accordingly using the @kbd{C-x @key{RET} k} command
(@code{set-keyboard-coding-system}). For example, for Traditional
Chinese, use @samp{chinese-big5} as keyboard coding system; for
Japanese, use @samp{sjis}, etc. Then select the desired input method in
the keyboard layout pull-down menu.
Emacs on Mac OS automatically changes the value of
@code{keyboard-coding-system} according to the current keyboard
layout. So users don't need to set it manually, and even if set, it
will be changed when the keyboard layout change is detected next time.
The Mac clipboard and the Emacs kill ring (@pxref{Killing}) are
connected as follows: the most recent kill is copied to the clipboard
when Emacs is suspended and the contents of the clipboard is inserted
into the kill ring when Emacs resumes. The result is that you can yank
a piece of text and paste it into another Mac application, or cut or copy
one in another Mac application and yank it into a Emacs buffer.
The encoding of text selections must be specified using the commands
@kbd{C-x @key{RET} x} (@code{set-selection-coding-system}) or @kbd{C-x
@key{RET} X} (@code{set-next-selection-coding-system}) (e.g., for
Traditional Chinese, use @samp{chinese-big5-mac} and for Japanese,
@samp{sjis-mac}). @xref{Specify Coding}, for more details.
synchronized by default: you can yank a piece of text and paste it
into another Mac application, or cut or copy one in another Mac
application and yank it into a Emacs buffer. This feature can be
disabled by setting @code{x-select-enable-clipboard} to @code{nil}.
One can still do copy and paste with another application from the Edit
menu.
On Mac, the role of the coding system for selection that is set by
@code{set-selection-coding-system} (@pxref{Specify Coding}) is
two-fold. First, it is used as a preferred coding system for the
traditional text flavor that does not specify any particular encodings
and is mainly used by applications on Mac OS Classic. Second, it
specifies the intermediate encoding for the UTF-16 text flavor that is
mainly used by applications on Mac OS X.
When pasting UTF-16 text data from the clipboard, it is first
converted to the encoding specified by the selection coding system
using the converter in the Mac OS system, and then decoded into the
Emacs internal encoding using the converter in Emacs. If the first
conversion failed, then the UTF-16 data is directly converted to Emacs
internal encoding using the converter in Emacs. Copying UTF-16 text
to the clipboard goes through the inverse path. The reason for this
two-path decoding is to avoid subtle differences in Unicode mappings
between the Mac OS system and Emacs such as various kinds of hyphens,
and to minimize users' customization. For example, users that mainly
use Latin characters would prefer Greek characters to be decoded into
the @code{mule-unicode-0100-24ff} charset, but Japanese users would
prefer them to be decoded into the @code{japanese-jisx0208} charset.
Since the coding system for selection is automatically set according
to the system locale setting, users usually don't have to set it
manually.
The default language environment (@pxref{Language Environments}) is
set according to the locale setting at the startup time. On Mac OS,
the locale setting is consulted in the following order:
@enumerate
@item
Environment variables @env{LC_ALL}, @env{LC_CTYPE} and @env{LANG} as
in other systems.
@item
Preference @code{AppleLocale} that is set by default on Mac OS X 10.3
and later.
@item
Preference @code{AppleLanguages} that is set by default on Mac OS X
10.1 and later.
@item
Variable @code{mac-system-locale} that is derived from the system
language and region codes. This variable is available on all
supported Mac OS versions including Mac OS Classic.
@end enumerate
The default values of almost all variables about coding systems are
also set according to the language environment. So usually you don't
have to customize these variables manually.
@node Mac Environment Variables
@section Environment Variables and Command Line Arguments.
......@@ -145,10 +179,23 @@ Traditional Chinese, use @samp{chinese-big5-mac} and for Japanese,
On Mac OS X, when Emacs is run in a terminal, it inherits the values
of environment variables from the shell from which it is invoked.
However, when it is run from the Finder as a GUI application, it
inherits no environment variable values.
However, when it is run from the Finder as a GUI application, it only
inherits environment variable values defined in the file
@file{~/.MacOSX/environment.plist} that affects all the applications
invoked from the Finder or the @command{open} command.
On Mac OS 8 or 9, environment variables and command line arguments
Command line arguments are specified like
@example
/Applications/Emacs.app/Contents/MacOS/Emacs -geometry 80x25 &
@end example
@noindent
if Emacs is installed at @file{/Applications/Emacs.app}. If Emacs is
invoked like this, then it also inherits the values of environment
variables from the shell from which it is invoked.
On Mac OS Classic, environment variables and command line arguments
for Emacs can be set by modifying the @samp{STR#} resources 128 and
129, respectively. A common environment variable that one may want to
set is @samp{HOME}.
......@@ -169,12 +216,45 @@ string
EMACS_UNIBYTE=1
@end example
@cindex Mac Preferences
Although Emacs on Mac does not support X resources (@pxref{X
Resources}) directly, one can use the Preferences system in place of X
resources. For example, adding the line
@example
Emacs.cursorType: bar
@end example
@noindent
to @file{~/.Xresources} in X11 corresponds to the execution of
@example
defaults write org.gnu.Emacs Emacs.cursorType bar
@end example
@noindent
on Mac OS X. One can use boolean or numeric values as well as string
values as follows:
@example
defaults write org.gnu.Emacs Emacs.toolBar -bool false
defaults write org.gnu.Emacs Emacs.lineSpacing -int 3
@end example
@noindent
Try @kbd{M-x man RET defaults RET} for the usage of the
@command{defaults} command. Alternatively, if you have Developer
Tools installed on Mac OS X, you can use Property List Editor to edit
the file @file{~/Library/Preferences/org.gnu.Emacs.plist}.
@node Mac Directories
@section Volumes and Directories on the Mac
@section Volumes and Directories on Mac
@cindex file names (Mac OS)
The directory structure in the Mac OS is seen by Emacs as
This node applies to Mac OS Classic only.
The directory structure in Mac OS Classic is seen by Emacs as
@example
/@var{volumename}/@var{filename}
......@@ -184,11 +264,11 @@ So when Emacs requests a file name, doing file name completion on
@file{/} will display all volumes on the system. You can use @file{..}
to go up a directory level.
On Mac OS 8 or 9, to access files and folders on the desktop, look
On Mac OS Classic, to access files and folders on the desktop, look
in the folder @file{Desktop Folder} in your boot volume (this folder
is usually invisible in the Mac @code{Finder}).
On Mac OS 8 or 9, Emacs creates the Mac folder
On Mac OS Classic, Emacs creates the Mac folder
@file{:Preferences:Emacs:} in the @file{System Folder} and uses it as
the temporary directory. Emacs maps the directory name @file{/tmp/}
to that. Therefore it is best to avoid naming a volume @file{tmp}.
......@@ -199,12 +279,12 @@ created.
@node Mac Font Specs
@section Specifying Fonts on the Mac
@section Specifying Fonts on Mac
@cindex font names (Mac OS)
It is rare that you need to specify a font name in Emacs; usually
you specify face attributes instead. But when you do need to specify
a font name in Emacs on the Mac, use a standard X font name:
a font name in Emacs on Mac, use a standard X font name:
@smallexample
-@var{maker}-@var{family}-@var{weight}-@var{slant}-@var{widthtype}-@var{style}@dots{}
......@@ -216,11 +296,57 @@ a font name in Emacs on the Mac, use a standard X font name:
Native Apple fonts in Mac Roman encoding has maker name @code{apple}
and charset @code{mac-roman}. For example 12-point Monaco can be
specified by the name @samp{-apple-monaco-*-12-*-mac-roman}.
specified by the name @samp{-apple-monaco-*-12-*-mac-roman}. When
using a particular size of scalable fonts, it must be specified in a
format containing 14 @samp{-}s like
@samp{-apple-monaco-medium-r-normal--13-*-*-*-*-*-mac-roman}.
You can specify a @code{mac-roman} font for @acronym{ASCII}
characters like
Native Apple Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Japanese, and
Korean fonts have charsets @samp{big5-0}, @samp{gb2312.1980-0},
@samp{jisx0208.1983-sjis}, and @samp{ksc5601.1989-0}, respectively.
@lisp
(add-to-list
'default-frame-alist
'(font . "-apple-monaco-medium-r-normal--13-*-*-*-*-*-mac-roman"))
@end lisp
@noindent
but that does not extend to ISO-8859-1: specifying a @code{mac-roman}
font for Latin-1 characters introduces wrong glyphs.
Native Apple Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Japanese,
Korean, Central European, Cyrillic, Symbol, and Dingbats fonts have
charsets @samp{big5-0}, @samp{gb2312.1980-0},
@samp{jisx0208.1983-sjis} and @samp{jisx0201.1976-0},
@samp{ksc5601.1989-0}, @samp{mac-centraleurroman},
@samp{mac-cyrillic}, @samp{mac-symbol}, and @samp{mac-dingbats},
respectively.
Since Emacs as of the current version uses QuickDraw Text routines
for drawing texts, only characters in the charsets listed above can be
displayed with the OS-bundled fonts, even if other applications that
use @acronym{ATSUI} or Cocoa can display variety of characters with
them.
The use of @code{create-fontset-from-fontset-spec} (@pxref{Defining
Fontsets}) for defining fontsets often results in wrong ones
especially when using only OS-bundled fonts. The recommended way is
to create a fontset using @code{create-fontset-from-mac-roman-font}:
@lisp
(create-fontset-from-mac-roman-font
"-apple-courier-medium-r-normal--13-*-*-*-*-*-mac-roman"
nil "foo")
@end lisp
@noindent
and then optionally specifying Chinese, Japanese, or Korean font
families using @code{set-fontset-font}:
@lisp
(set-fontset-font "fontset-foo"
'chinese-gb2312 '("song" . "gb2312.1980-0"))
@end lisp
Single-byte fonts converted from GNU fonts in BDF format, which are not
in the Mac Roman encoding, have foundry, family, and character sets
......@@ -228,6 +354,12 @@ encoded in the names of their font suitcases. E.g., the font suitcase
@samp{ETL-Fixed-ISO8859-1} contains fonts which can be referred to by
the name @samp{-ETL-fixed-*-iso8859-1}.
@vindex mac-allow-anti-aliasing
Emacs uses the QuickDraw text rendering by default. On Mac OS X
10.2 and later, it can be changed so that it uses the Quartz 2D text
rendering (aka CG text rendering) by setting
@code{mac-allow-anti-aliasing} to @code{t}. However, it is reported
to sometimes leave some garbages.
@node Mac Functions
@section Mac-Specific Lisp Functions
......@@ -246,6 +378,19 @@ returns the GNU or Unix equivalent. The function
are useful for constructing AppleScript commands to be passed to
@code{do-applescript}.
@findex mac-set-file-creator
@findex mac-get-file-creator
@findex mac-set-file-type
@findex mac-get-file-type
The functions @code{mac-set-file-creator},
@code{mac-get-file-creator}, @code{mac-set-file-type}, and
@code{mac-get-file-type} can be used to set and get creator and file
codes.
@findex mac-get-preference
The function @code{mac-get-preference} returns the preferences value
converted to a Lisp object for a specified key and application.
@ignore
arch-tag: a822c2ab-4273-4997-927e-c153bb71dcf6
@end ignore
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