Commit 391f0754 authored by Richard M. Stallman's avatar Richard M. Stallman
Browse files

Minor cleaups.

(Screen): Clean up the intro paragraphs.
(Mode Line): Lots of rewriting.  Handle frame-name better.
eol-mnemonic-... vars moved out.
parent 068bddbe
2006-01-29 Richard M. Stallman <rms@gnu.org>
* screen.texi: Minor cleaups.
(Screen): Clean up the intro paragraphs.
(Mode Line): Lots of rewriting. Handle frame-name better.
eol-mnemonic-... vars moved out.
* emacs.texi (Top): Change menu item for MS-DOS node.
Update subnode menu.
* msdog.texi (MS-DOS): Rewrite intro to explain how this
chapter relates to Windows. Title changed.
* mini.texi: Minor cleanups.
* mark.texi (Selective Undo): New node, text moved from basic.texi.
(Mark): Put it in the menu.
* entering.texi: Minor cleanups.
* emacs.texi (Top): Add xref to Mac chapter; explain Windows better.
(Intro): Refer to "graphical" terminals, rather than X.
* display.texi (Display Custom): Add xref to Variables.
(Optional Mode Line): eol-mnemonic-... vars moved here.
* commands.texi: Minor cleanups. Refer to "graphical" terminals,
rather than X.
* cc-mode.texi (Indentation Commands): Inserts newline, not "linefeed".
* basic.texi: Minor cleanups.
(Undo): selective-undo moved.
2006-01-29 Michael Olson <mwolson@gnu.org>
* makefile.w32-in ($(infodir)/erc, erc.dvi): New targets.
......
......@@ -6,42 +6,45 @@
@chapter The Organization of the Screen
@cindex screen
@cindex parts of the screen
@c
On a text-only terminal, the Emacs display occupies the whole screen.
On the X Window System, Emacs creates its own X windows to use. We use
the term @dfn{frame} to mean an entire text-only screen or an entire X
window used by Emacs. Emacs uses both kinds of frames in the same way
to display your editing. Emacs normally starts out with just one frame,
but you can create additional frames if you wish. @xref{Frames}.
When you start Emacs, the entire frame except for the top and bottom
is devoted to the text you are editing. This area is called the
@dfn{window}. At the top there is normally a @dfn{menu bar} where you
can access a series of menus; then there may be a @dfn{tool bar}, a
row of icons that perform editing commands if you click on them.
Below this, the window begins. The last line is a special @dfn{echo
area} or @dfn{minibuffer window}, where prompts appear and where you
enter information when Emacs asks for it. See below for more
information about these special lines.
You can subdivide the large text window horizontally or vertically
into multiple text windows, each of which can be used for a different
file (@pxref{Windows}). In this manual, the word ``window'' always
refers to the subdivisions of a frame within Emacs.
On a text-only terminal, the Emacs display occupies the whole
screen. On a graphical display, such as on GNU/Linux using the X
Window System, Emacs creates its own windows to use. We use the term
@dfn{frame} to mean the entire text-only screen or an entire
system-level window used by Emacs. Emacs uses both kinds of frames,
in the same way, to display your editing. Emacs normally starts out
with just one frame, but you can create additional frames if you wish.
@xref{Frames}.
When you start Emacs, the main central area of the frame, all except
for the top and bottom and sides, displays the text you are editing.
This area is called @dfn{the window}. At the top there is normally a
@dfn{menu bar} where you can access a series of menus; then there may
be a @dfn{tool bar}, a row of icons that perform editing commands if
you click on them. Below this, the window begins, often with a
@dfn{scroll bar} on one side. Below the window comes the last line of
the frame, a special @dfn{echo area} or @dfn{minibuffer window}, where
prompts appear and where you enter information when Emacs asks for it.
See following sections for more information about these special lines.
You can subdivide the window horizontally or vertically to make
multiple text windows, each of which can independently display some
file or text (@pxref{Windows}). In this manual, the word ``window''
refers to the initial large window if not subdivided, or any one of
the multiple windows you have subdivided it into.
At any time, one window is the @dfn{selected window}. On graphical
terminals, the selected window normally shows a more prominent cursor
(solid and blinking) while other windows show a weaker cursor (such as
a hollow box). On text terminals, which have just one cursor, that cursor
appears in the selected window.
(usually solid and blinking) while other windows show a weaker cursor
(such as a hollow box). On text terminals, which have just one
cursor, that cursor always appears in the selected window.
Most Emacs commands implicitly apply to the text in the selected
window (though mouse commands generally operate on whatever window you
click them in, whether selected or not). The other windows display
text for reference only, unless/until you select them. If you use
multiple frames under the X Window System, then giving the input focus
to a particular frame selects a window in that frame.
click them in, whether selected or not). The text in other windows is
mostly visible for reference, unless/until you select them. If you
use multiple frames on a graphical display, then giving the input
focus to a particular frame selects a window in that frame.
Each window's last line is a @dfn{mode line}, which describes what
is going on in that window. It appears in different color and/or a
......@@ -67,9 +70,9 @@ whether the buffer contains unsaved changes.
editing commands will take effect. This location is called @dfn{point}.
Many Emacs commands move point through the text, so that you can edit at
different places in it. You can also place point by clicking mouse
button 1.
button 1 (normally the left button).
While the cursor appears to point @emph{at} a character, you should
While the cursor appears to be @emph{on} a character, you should
think of point as @emph{between} two characters; it points @emph{before}
the character that appears under the cursor. For example, if your text
looks like @samp{frob} with the cursor over the @samp{b}, then point is
......@@ -112,7 +115,6 @@ for accessing the value now called ``point.''
@node Echo Area
@section The Echo Area
@cindex echo area
@c
The line at the bottom of the frame (below the mode line) is the
@dfn{echo area}. It is used to display small amounts of text for
......@@ -133,10 +135,10 @@ feedback. You can change this behavior by setting a variable
(@pxref{Display Custom}).
@cindex error message in the echo area
If a command cannot be executed, it may display an @dfn{error message}
in the echo area. Error messages are accompanied by beeping or by
flashing the screen. The error also discards any input you have typed
ahead.
If a command cannot do its job, it may display an @dfn{error
message} in the echo area. Error messages are accompanied by beeping
or by flashing the screen. The error also discards any input you have
typed ahead.
Some commands display informative messages in the echo area. These
messages look much like error messages, but they are not announced
......@@ -149,7 +151,8 @@ to show you a message giving you specific information---for example,
character position of point in the text and its current column in the
window. Commands that take a long time often display messages ending
in @samp{...} while they are working, and add @samp{done} at the end
when they are finished.
when they are finished. They may also indicate progress with
percentages.
@cindex @samp{*Messages*} buffer
@cindex saved echo area messages
......@@ -182,19 +185,19 @@ minibuffer by typing @kbd{C-g}. @xref{Minibuffer}.
@c
Each text window's last line is a @dfn{mode line}, which describes
what is going on in that window. When there is only one text window,
the mode line appears right above the echo area; it is the
next-to-last line in the frame. The mode line starts and ends with
dashes. On a text-mode display, the mode line is in inverse video if
the terminal supports that; on a graphics display, the mode line has a
3D box appearance to help it stand out. The mode line of the
selected window has a slightly different appearance than those of
other windows; see @ref{Optional Mode Line}, for more about this.
what is going on in that window. The mode line starts and ends with
dashes. When there is only one text window, the mode line appears
right above the echo area; it is the next-to-last line in the frame.
On a text-mode display, the mode line is in inverse video if the
terminal supports that; on a graphics display, the mode line has a 3D
box appearance to help it stand out. The mode line of the selected
window has a slightly different appearance than those of other
windows; see @ref{Optional Mode Line}, for more about this.
Normally, the mode line looks like this:
@example
-@var{cs}:@var{ch} @var{buf} @var{pos} @var{line} (@var{major} @var{minor})------
-@var{cs}:@var{ch}-@var{fr} @var{buf} @var{pos} @var{line} (@var{major} @var{minor})------
@end example
@noindent
......@@ -208,13 +211,16 @@ been edited (the buffer is ``modified''), or @samp{--} if the buffer has
not been edited. For a read-only buffer, it is @samp{%*} if the buffer
is modified, and @samp{%%} otherwise.
@var{fr} appears only on text-only terminals, to show the selected
frame name. @xref{Frames}. The initial frame's name is @samp{F1}.
@var{buf} is the name of the window's @dfn{buffer}. In most cases
this is the same as the name of a file you are editing. @xref{Buffers}.
The buffer displayed in the selected window (the window that the
cursor is in) is also Emacs's current buffer, the one that editing
takes place in. When we speak of what some command does to ``the
buffer,'' we are talking about the current buffer.
cursor is in) is the @dfn{current buffer}--the one that editing takes
place in. When we speak of what some command does to ``the buffer,''
we mean it does those things to the current buffer.
@var{pos} tells you whether there is additional text above the top of
the window, or below the bottom. If your buffer is small and it is all
......@@ -243,13 +249,13 @@ name. For example, Rmail buffers display the current message number and
the total number of messages. Compilation buffers and Shell buffers
display the status of the subprocess.
@var{minor} is a list of some of the @dfn{minor modes} that are turned
on at the moment in the window's chosen buffer. For example,
@var{minor} is a list of some of the @dfn{minor modes} that are
turned on at the moment in the window's chosen buffer. For example,
@samp{Fill} means that Auto Fill mode is on. @samp{Abbrev} means that
Word Abbrev mode is on. @samp{Ovwrt} means that Overwrite mode is on.
@xref{Minor Modes}, for more information. @samp{Narrow} means that the
buffer being displayed has editing restricted to only a portion of its
text. This is not really a minor mode, but is like one.
@xref{Minor Modes}, for more information. @samp{Narrow} means that
the buffer being displayed has editing restricted to only a portion of
its text. (This is not really a minor mode, but is like one.)
@xref{Narrowing}. @samp{Def} means that a keyboard macro is being
defined. @xref{Keyboard Macros}.
......@@ -261,26 +267,22 @@ editing levels affect Emacs globally, not just one buffer, the square
brackets appear in every window's mode line or not in any of them.
@xref{Recursive Edit}.@refill
Non-windowing terminals can only show a single Emacs frame at a time
(@pxref{Frames}). On such terminals, the mode line displays the name of
the selected frame, after @var{ch}. The initial frame's name is
@samp{F1}.
@var{cs} states the coding system used for the file you are editing.
A dash indicates the default state of affairs: no code conversion,
except for end-of-line translation if the file contents call for that.
@samp{=} means no conversion whatsoever. Nontrivial code conversions
are represented by various letters---for example, @samp{1} refers to ISO
Latin-1. @xref{Coding Systems}, for more information. If you are using
an input method, a string of the form @samp{@var{i}>} is added to the
beginning of @var{cs}; @var{i} identifies the input method. (Some input
methods show @samp{+} or @samp{@@} instead of @samp{>}.) @xref{Input
Methods}.
Latin-1. @xref{Coding Systems}, for more information.
On a text-only terminal, @var{cs} includes two additional characters
which describe the coding system for keyboard input and the coding
system for terminal output. They come right before the coding system
used for the file you are editing.
When you are using a character-only terminal (not a window system),
@var{cs} uses three characters to describe, respectively, the coding
system for keyboard input, the coding system for terminal output, and
the coding system used for the file you are editing.
If you are using an input method, a string of the form
@samp{@var{i}>} is added to the beginning of @var{cs}; @var{i}
identifies the input method. (Some input methods show @samp{+} or
@samp{@@} instead of @samp{>}.) @xref{Input Methods}.
When multibyte characters are not enabled, @var{cs} does not appear at
all. @xref{Enabling Multibyte}.
......@@ -298,22 +300,12 @@ carriage-return, the colon indicator changes to either a forward slash
@samp{(Unix)} instead of the colon even for files that use newline to
separate lines.
@vindex eol-mnemonic-unix
@vindex eol-mnemonic-dos
@vindex eol-mnemonic-mac
@vindex eol-mnemonic-undecided
You can customize the mode line display for each of the end-of-line
formats by setting each of the variables @code{eol-mnemonic-unix},
@code{eol-mnemonic-dos}, @code{eol-mnemonic-mac}, and
@code{eol-mnemonic-undecided} to any string you find appropriate.
@xref{Variables}, for an explanation of how to set variables.
@xref{Optional Mode Line}, for features that add other handy
information to the mode line, such as the size of the buffer, the
current column number of point, the current time, and whether new mail
for you has arrived.
current column number of point, and whether new mail for you has
arrived.
The mode line is mouse-sensitive; when you move the mouse across
The mode line is mouse-sensitive; when you move the mouse across
various parts of it, Emacs displays help text to say what a click in
that place will do. @xref{Mode Line Mouse}.
......@@ -328,11 +320,11 @@ them here, as you can more easily see for yourself.
@kindex M-`
@kindex F10
@findex tmm-menubar
When you are using a window system, you can use the mouse to choose a
command from the menu bar. An arrow pointing right, after the menu
item, indicates that the item leads to a subsidiary menu; @samp{...} at
the end means that the command will read arguments (further input from you)
before it actually does anything.
On a graphical terminal, you can use the mouse to choose a command
from the menu bar. An arrow pointing right, after the menu item,
indicates that the item leads to a subsidiary menu; @samp{...} at the
end means that the command will read arguments (further input from
you) before it actually does anything.
To view the full command name and documentation for a menu item, type
@kbd{C-h k}, and then select the menu bar with the mouse in the usual
......
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