Implement a Network Security Manager

* processes.texi (Network): Mention the new :warn-unless-encrypted
parameter to `open-network-stream'.
(Network): Mention the Network Security Manager.

* net/nsm.el: New file that implements a Network Security Manager.

* net/network-stream.el (open-network-stream): Add a new
:warn-unless-encrypted parameter.
(network-stream-open-plain): Allow warning unless encrypted.
(network-stream-open-starttls): Call the Network Security Manager.
(network-stream-open-tls): Ditto.
parent a8595046
2014-11-23 Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <>
* processes.texi (Network): Mention the new :warn-unless-encrypted
parameter to `open-network-stream'.
(Network): Mention the Network Security Manager.
2014-11-21 Ulf Jasper <>
* text.texi (Parsing HTML/XML): Document new optional parameter
......@@ -2041,6 +2041,12 @@ Regular expression matching a successful @acronym{STARTTLS} negotiation.
If non-@code{nil}, do opportunistic @acronym{STARTTLS} upgrades even if Emacs
doesn't have built-in @acronym{TLS} support.
@item :warn-unless-encrypted @var{boolean}
If non-@code{nil}, and @code{:return-value} is also non-@code{nil},
Emacs will warn if the connection isn't encrypted. This is useful for
protocols like @acronym{IMAP} and the like, where most users would
expect the network traffic to be encrypted.
@item :client-certificate @var{list-or-t}
Either a list of the form @code{(@var{key-file} @var{cert-file})},
naming the certificate key file and certificate file itself, or
......@@ -2066,6 +2072,27 @@ The connection type: @samp{plain} or @samp{tls}.
@end defun
@cindex Network Security Manager
After establishing the connection, the connection is then passed on to
the Network Security Manager (@acronym{NSM}). If the connection is a
@acronym{TLS} or @acronym{STARTTLS} connection, the @acronym{NSM} will
check whether the certificate used to establish the identity of the
server we're connecting to can be verified. If this can't be done,
the @acronym{NSM} will query the user whether to proceed with the
The user is given the choice of registering a permanent security
exception, a temporary one, or whether to refuse the connection
If the connection is unencrypted, but it was encrypted in previous
sessions, the user will also be notified about this.
@vindex nsm-security-level
The @code{nsm-security-level} variable determines the security level.
If this is @code{low}, no security checks are performed.
@node Network Servers
@section Network Servers
@cindex network servers
2014-11-23 Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <>
* net/nsm.el: New file that implements a Network Security Manager.
* net/network-stream.el (open-network-stream): Add a new
:warn-unless-encrypted parameter.
(network-stream-open-plain): Allow warning unless encrypted.
(network-stream-open-starttls): Call the Network Security Manager.
(network-stream-open-tls): Ditto.
2014-11-23 Leo Liu <>
* calendar/cal-china.el (calendar-chinese-from-absolute-for-diary)
......@@ -45,6 +45,7 @@
(require 'tls)
(require 'starttls)
(require 'auth-source)
(require 'nsm)
(autoload 'gnutls-negotiate "gnutls")
(autoload 'open-gnutls-stream "gnutls")
......@@ -128,11 +129,14 @@ values:
:use-starttls-if-possible is a boolean that says to do opportunistic
STARTTLS upgrades even if Emacs doesn't have built-in TLS functionality.
:warn-unless-encrypted is a boolean which, if :return-list is
non-nil, is used warn the user if the connection isn't encrypted.
:nogreeting is a boolean that can be used to inhibit waiting for
a greeting from the server.
:nowait is a boolean that says the connection should be made
asynchronously, if possible."
asynchronously, if possible."
(unless (featurep 'make-network-process)
(error "Emacs was compiled without networking support"))
(let ((type (plist-get parameters :type))
......@@ -196,6 +200,8 @@ a greeting from the server.
(stream (make-network-process :name name :buffer buffer
:host host :service service
:nowait (plist-get parameters :nowait))))
(when (plist-get parameters :warn-unless-encrypted)
(setq stream (nsm-verify-connection stream host service nil t)))
(list stream
(network-stream-get-response stream start
(plist-get parameters :end-of-command))
......@@ -319,6 +325,12 @@ a greeting from the server.
"' program was found"))))
(delete-process stream)
(setq stream nil))
;; Check certificate validity etc.
(when builtin-starttls
(setq stream (nsm-verify-connection
stream host service
(eq resulting-type 'tls)
(plist-get parameters :warn-unless-encrypted))))
;; Return value:
(list stream greeting capabilities resulting-type error)))
......@@ -352,6 +364,9 @@ a greeting from the server.
name buffer host service))
(eoc (plist-get parameters :end-of-command)))
;; Check certificate validity etc.
(when (and use-builtin-gnutls stream)
(setq stream (nsm-verify-connection stream host service)))
(if (null stream)
(list nil nil nil 'plain)
;; If we're using tls.el, we have to delete the output from
;;; nsm.el --- Network Security Manager
;; Copyright (C) 2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
;; Author: Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <>
;; Keywords: encryption, security, network
;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.
;; GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;; the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
;; (at your option) any later version.
;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; GNU General Public License for more details.
;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;; along with GNU Emacs. If not, see <>.
;;; Commentary:
;;; Code:
(require 'cl-lib)
(defvar nsm-permanent-host-settings nil)
(defvar nsm-temporary-host-settings nil)
(defgroup nsm nil
"Network Security Manager"
:version "25.1"
:group 'comm)
(defcustom nsm-security-level 'medium
"How secure the network should be."
:version "25.1"
:group 'nsm
:type '(choice (const :tag "Low" low)
(const :tag "Medium" medium)
(const :tag "High" high)
(const :tag "Paranoid" paranoid)))
(defcustom nsm-settings-file (expand-file-name ""
"The file the security manager settings will be stored in."
:version "25.1"
:group 'nsm
:type 'file)
(defcustom nsm-save-host-names nil
"If non-nil, always save host names in the structures in `nsm-settings-file'.
By default, only hosts that have exceptions have their names
stored in plain text."
:version "25.1"
:group 'nsm
:type 'boolean)
(defvar nsm-noninteractive nil
"If non-nil, the connection is opened in a non-interactive context.
This means that no queries should be performed.")
(defun nsm-verify-connection (process host port &optional
save-fingerprint warn-unencrypted)
"Verify the security status of PROCESS that's connected to HOST:PORT.
If PROCESS is a gnutls connection, the certificate validity will
be examined. If it's a non-TLS connection, it may be compared
against previous connections. If the function determines that
there is something odd about the connection, the user will be
queried about what to do about it.
The process it returned if everything is OK, and otherwise, the
process will be deleted and nil is returned.
If SAVE-FINGERPRINT, always save the fingerprint of the
server (if the connection is a TLS connection). This is useful
to keep track of the TLS status of STARTTLS servers.
If WARN-UNENCRYPTED, query the user if the connection is
(if (eq nsm-security-level 'low)
(let* ((status (gnutls-peer-status process))
(id (nsm-id host port))
(settings (nsm-host-settings id)))
((not (process-live-p process))
((not status)
;; This is a non-TLS connection.
(nsm-check-plain-connection process host port settings
(let ((process
(nsm-check-tls-connection process host port status settings)))
(when (and process save-fingerprint
(null (nsm-host-settings id)))
(nsm-save-host host port status 'fingerprint 'always))
(defun nsm-check-tls-connection (process host port status settings)
(let ((warnings (plist-get status :warnings)))
;; The certificate validated, but perhaps we want to do
;; certificate pinning.
((null warnings)
((< (nsm-level nsm-security-level) (nsm-level 'high))
;; The certificate is fine, but if we're paranoid, we might
;; want to check whether it's changed anyway.
((and (>= (nsm-level nsm-security-level) (nsm-level 'high))
(not (nsm-fingerprint-ok-p host port status settings)))
(delete-process process)
;; We haven't seen this before, and we're paranoid.
((and (eq nsm-security-level 'paranoid)
(null settings)
(not (nsm-new-fingerprint-ok-p host port status)))
(delete-process process)
((>= (nsm-level nsm-security-level) (nsm-level 'high))
;; Save the host fingerprint so that we can check it the
;; next time we connect.
(nsm-save-host host port status 'fingerprint 'always)
;; The certificate did not validate.
((not (equal nsm-security-level 'low))
;; We always want to pin the certificate of invalid connections
;; to track man-in-the-middle or the like.
(if (not (nsm-fingerprint-ok-p host port status settings))
(delete-process process)
;; We have a warning, so query the user.
(if (and (not (nsm-warnings-ok-p status settings))
(not (nsm-query
host port status 'conditions
"The TLS connection to %s:%s is insecure\nfor the following reason%s:\n\n%s"
host port
(if (> (length warnings) 1)
"s" "")
(mapconcat 'cadr warnings "\n"))))
(delete-process process)
(defun nsm-fingerprint (status)
(plist-get (plist-get status :certificate) :public-key-id))
(defun nsm-fingerprint-ok-p (host port status settings)
(let ((did-query nil))
(if (and settings
(not (eq (plist-get settings :fingerprint) :none))
(not (equal (nsm-fingerprint status)
(plist-get settings :fingerprint)))
(setq did-query
host port status 'fingerprint
"The fingerprint for the connection to %s:%s has changed from\n%s to\n%s"
host port
(plist-get settings :fingerprint)
(nsm-fingerprint status)))))
;; Not OK.
(when did-query
;; Remove any exceptions that have been set on the previous
;; certificate.
(plist-put settings :conditions nil))
(defun nsm-new-fingerprint-ok-p (host port status)
host port nil 'fingerprint
"The fingerprint for the connection to %s:%s is new:\n%s"
host port
(nsm-fingerprint status)))
(defun nsm-check-plain-connection (process host port settings warn-unencrypted)
;; If this connection used to be TLS, but is now plain, then it's
;; possible that we're being Man-In-The-Middled by a proxy that's
;; stripping out STARTTLS announcements.
((and (plist-get settings :fingerprint)
(not (eq (plist-get settings :fingerprint) :none))
host port nil 'conditions
"The connection to %s:%s used to be an encrypted\nconnection, but is now unencrypted. This might mean that there's a\nman-in-the-middle tapping this connection."
host port)))
(delete-process process)
((and warn-unencrypted
(not (memq :unencrypted (plist-get settings :conditions)))
(not (nsm-query
host port nil 'conditions
"The connection to %s:%s is unencrypted."
host port)))
(delete-process process)
(defun nsm-query (host port status what message &rest args)
;; If there is no user to answer queries, then say `no' to everything.
(if (or noninteractive
(let ((response
(condition-case nil
(nsm-query-user message args (nsm-format-certificate status))
;; Make sure we manage to close the process if the user hits
;; `C-g'.
(quit 'no)
(error 'no))))
(if (eq response 'no)
(nsm-save-host host port status what response)
(defun nsm-query-user (message args cert)
(let ((buffer (get-buffer-create "*Network Security Manager*")))
(with-help-window buffer
(with-current-buffer buffer
(when (> (length cert) 0)
(insert cert "\n"))
(insert (apply 'format message args))))
(let ((responses '((?n . no)
(?s . session)
(?a . always)))
(prefix "")
(while (not response)
(setq response
(assq (downcase
(concat prefix
"Continue connecting? (No, Session only, Always)")))
(unless response
(setq prefix "Invalid choice. ")))
(kill-buffer buffer)
;; If called from a callback, `read-char' will insert things
;; into the pending input. Clear that.
(defun nsm-save-host (host port status what permanency)
(let* ((id (nsm-id host port))
(list :id id
:fingerprint (or (nsm-fingerprint status)
;; Plain connection.
(when (or (eq what 'conditions)
(nconc saved (list :host (format "%s:%s" host port))))
;; We either want to save/update the fingerprint or the conditions
;; of the certificate/unencrypted connection.
(when (eq what 'conditions)
(nconc saved (list :host (format "%s:%s" host port)))
((not status)
(nconc saved `(:conditions (:unencrypted))))
((plist-get status :warnings)
(nconc saved
`(:conditions ,(mapcar 'car (plist-get status :warnings)))))))
(if (eq permanency 'always)
(nsm-remove-temporary-setting id)
(nsm-remove-permanent-setting id)
(push saved nsm-permanent-host-settings)
(nsm-remove-temporary-setting id)
(push saved nsm-temporary-host-settings))))
(defun nsm-write-settings ()
(with-temp-file nsm-settings-file
(insert "(\n")
(dolist (setting nsm-permanent-host-settings)
(insert " ")
(prin1 setting (current-buffer))
(insert "\n"))
(insert ")\n")))
(defun nsm-read-settings ()
(setq nsm-permanent-host-settings
(insert-file-contents nsm-settings-file)
(goto-char (point-min))
(ignore-errors (read (current-buffer))))))
(defun nsm-id (host port)
(concat "sha1:" (sha1 (format "%s:%s" host port))))
(defun nsm-host-settings (id)
(when (and (not nsm-permanent-host-settings)
(file-exists-p nsm-settings-file))
(let ((result nil))
(dolist (elem (append nsm-temporary-host-settings
(when (and (not result)
(equal (plist-get elem :id) id))
(setq result elem)))
(defun nsm-warnings-ok-p (status settings)
(let ((not-ok nil)
(conditions (plist-get settings :conditions)))
(dolist (warning (plist-get status :warnings))
(when (memq (car warning) conditions)
(setq not-ok t)))
(defun nsm-remove-permanent-setting (id)
(setq nsm-permanent-host-settings
(lambda (elem)
(equal (plist-get elem :id) id))
(defun nsm-remove-temporary-setting (id)
(setq nsm-temporary-host-settings
(lambda (elem)
(equal (plist-get elem :id) id))
(defun nsm-format-certificate (status)
(let ((cert (plist-get status :certificate)))
(when cert
"Certificate information\n"
"Issued by:"
(nsm-certificate-part (plist-get cert :issuer) "CN" t) "\n"
"Issued to:"
(or (nsm-certificate-part (plist-get cert :subject) "O")
(nsm-certificate-part (plist-get cert :subject) "OU" t))
(nsm-certificate-part (plist-get cert :subject) "CN" t) "\n"
"Public key:" (plist-get cert :public-key-algorithm)
", signature: " (plist-get cert :signature-algorithm) "\n"
"Security level:"
(propertize (plist-get cert :certificate-security-level)
'face 'bold)
"Valid:From " (plist-get cert :valid-from)
" to " (plist-get cert :valid-to) "\n\n")
(goto-char (point-min))
(while (re-search-forward "^[^:]+:" nil t)
(insert (make-string (- 20 (current-column)) ? )))
(defun nsm-certificate-part (string part &optional full)
(let ((part (cadr (assoc part (nsm-parse-subject string)))))
(part part)
(full string)
(t nil))))
(defun nsm-parse-subject (string)
(insert string)
(goto-char (point-min))
(let ((start (point))
(result nil))
(while (not (eobp))
(push (replace-regexp-in-string
"[\\]\\(.\\)" "\\1"
(buffer-substring start
(if (re-search-forward "[^\\]," nil 'move)
(1- (point))
(setq start (point)))
(lambda (elem)
(let ((pos (cl-position ?= elem)))
(if pos
(list (substring elem 0 pos)
(substring elem (1+ pos)))
(nreverse result)))))
(defun nsm-level (symbol)
"Return a numerical level for SYMBOL for easier comparison."
((eq symbol 'low) 0)
((eq symbol 'medium) 1)
((eq symbol 'high) 2)
(t 3)))
(provide 'nsm)
;;; nsm.el ends here
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