Commit 64a695bd authored by Xue Fuqiao's avatar Xue Fuqiao
Browse files

Doc fix.

* doc/emacs/custom.texi (Specifying File Variables): Fix cross-references.

* doc/emacs/mule.texi (Unibyte Mode): Fix cross-references.

* doc/lispref/nonascii.texi (Non-ASCII Characters): Update menu.
(Disabling Multibyte): Move here from doc/emacs/mule.texi.  Fix cross-references.

* doc/lispref/elisp.texi (Top): Update menu.
parent f435830e
2013-07-31 Xue Fuqiao <xfq.free@gmail.com>
* custom.texi (Specifying File Variables): Fix cross-references.
* mule.texi (Unibyte Mode): Fix cross-references.
* macos.texi (Mac / GNUstep Basics): Mention `ns-alternate-modifier'.
* cal-xtra.texi (Advanced Calendar/Diary Usage): Update menu.
......
......@@ -1166,7 +1166,10 @@ conversion of this file. @xref{Coding Systems}.
@item
@code{unibyte} says to load or compile a file of Emacs Lisp in unibyte
mode, if the value is @code{t}. @xref{Disabling Multibyte}.
mode, if the value is @code{t}. @xref{Disabling Multibyte, ,
Disabling Multibyte Characters, elisp, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference
Manual}.
@end itemize
@noindent
......
......@@ -90,7 +90,6 @@ value to make sure Emacs interprets keyboard input correctly; see
@menu
* International Chars:: Basic concepts of multibyte characters.
* Disabling Multibyte:: Controlling whether to use multibyte characters.
* Language Environments:: Setting things up for the language you use.
* Input Methods:: Entering text characters not on your keyboard.
* Select Input Method:: Specifying your choice of input methods.
......@@ -244,79 +243,6 @@ Character code properties: customize what to show
decomposition: (65 768) ('A' '`')
@end smallexample
@c FIXME? Does this section even belong in the user manual?
@c Seems more appropriate to the lispref?
@node Disabling Multibyte
@section Disabling Multibyte Characters
By default, Emacs starts in multibyte mode: it stores the contents
of buffers and strings using an internal encoding that represents
non-@acronym{ASCII} characters using multi-byte sequences. Multibyte
mode allows you to use all the supported languages and scripts without
limitations.
@cindex turn multibyte support on or off
Under very special circumstances, you may want to disable multibyte
character support, for a specific buffer.
When multibyte characters are disabled in a buffer, we call
that @dfn{unibyte mode}. In unibyte mode, each character in the
buffer has a character code ranging from 0 through 255 (0377 octal); 0
through 127 (0177 octal) represent @acronym{ASCII} characters, and 128
(0200 octal) through 255 (0377 octal) represent non-@acronym{ASCII}
characters.
To edit a particular file in unibyte representation, visit it using
@code{find-file-literally}. @xref{Visiting}. You can convert a
multibyte buffer to unibyte by saving it to a file, killing the
buffer, and visiting the file again with @code{find-file-literally}.
Alternatively, you can use @kbd{C-x @key{RET} c}
(@code{universal-coding-system-argument}) and specify @samp{raw-text}
as the coding system with which to visit or save a file. @xref{Text
Coding}. Unlike @code{find-file-literally}, finding a file as
@samp{raw-text} doesn't disable format conversion, uncompression, or
auto mode selection.
@c Not a single file in Emacs uses this feature. Is it really worth
@c mentioning in the _user_ manual? Also, this duplicates somewhat
@c "Loading Non-ASCII" from the lispref.
@cindex Lisp files, and multibyte operation
@cindex multibyte operation, and Lisp files
@cindex unibyte operation, and Lisp files
@cindex init file, and non-@acronym{ASCII} characters
Emacs normally loads Lisp files as multibyte.
This includes the Emacs initialization
file, @file{.emacs}, and the initialization files of packages
such as Gnus. However, you can specify unibyte loading for a
particular Lisp file, by adding an entry @samp{coding: raw-text} in a file
local variables section. @xref{Specify Coding}.
Then that file is always loaded as unibyte text.
@ignore
@c I don't see the point of this statement:
The motivation for these conventions is that it is more reliable to
always load any particular Lisp file in the same way.
@end ignore
You can also load a Lisp file as unibyte, on any one occasion, by
typing @kbd{C-x @key{RET} c raw-text @key{RET}} immediately before
loading it.
@c See http://debbugs.gnu.org/11226 for lack of unibyte tooltip.
@vindex enable-multibyte-characters
The buffer-local variable @code{enable-multibyte-characters} is
non-@code{nil} in multibyte buffers, and @code{nil} in unibyte ones.
The mode line also indicates whether a buffer is multibyte or not.
@xref{Mode Line}. With a graphical display, in a multibyte buffer,
the portion of the mode line that indicates the character set has a
tooltip that (amongst other things) says that the buffer is multibyte.
In a unibyte buffer, the character set indicator is absent. Thus, in
a unibyte buffer (when using a graphical display) there is normally
nothing before the indication of the visited file's end-of-line
convention (colon, backslash, etc.), unless you are using an input
method.
@findex toggle-enable-multibyte-characters
You can turn off multibyte support in a specific buffer by invoking the
command @code{toggle-enable-multibyte-characters} in that buffer.
@node Language Environments
@section Language Environments
@cindex language environments
......@@ -1591,15 +1517,13 @@ the range 0240 to 0377 octal (160 to 255 decimal) to handle the
accented letters and punctuation needed by various European languages
(and some non-European ones). Note that Emacs considers bytes with
codes in this range as raw bytes, not as characters, even in a unibyte
buffer, i.e., if you disable multibyte characters. However, Emacs
can still handle these character codes as if they belonged to
@emph{one} of the single-byte character sets at a time. To specify
@emph{which} of these codes to use, invoke @kbd{M-x
set-language-environment} and specify a suitable language environment
such as @samp{Latin-@var{n}}.
For more information about unibyte operation, see
@ref{Disabling Multibyte}.
buffer, i.e., if you disable multibyte characters. However, Emacs can
still handle these character codes as if they belonged to @emph{one}
of the single-byte character sets at a time. To specify @emph{which}
of these codes to use, invoke @kbd{M-x set-language-environment} and
specify a suitable language environment such as @samp{Latin-@var{n}}.
@xref{Disabling Multibyte, , Disabling Multibyte Characters, elisp,
GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.
@vindex unibyte-display-via-language-environment
Emacs can also display bytes in the range 160 to 255 as readable
......
2013-07-31 Xue Fuqiao <xfq.free@gmail.com>
* nonascii.texi (Non-ASCII Characters): Update menu.
(Disabling Multibyte): Move here from doc/emacs/mule.texi. Fix cross-references.
* elisp.texi (Top): Update menu.
2013-07-30 Xue Fuqiao <xfq.free@gmail.com>
* windows.texi (Window History): Mention the default value of
......
......@@ -1194,6 +1194,7 @@ Text Properties
Non-@acronym{ASCII} Characters
* Text Representations:: How Emacs represents text.
* Disabling Multibyte:: Controlling whether to use multibyte characters.
* Converting Representations:: Converting unibyte to multibyte and vice versa.
* Selecting a Representation:: Treating a byte sequence as unibyte or multi.
* Character Codes:: How unibyte and multibyte relate to
......
......@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@ how they are stored in strings and buffers.
@menu
* Text Representations:: How Emacs represents text.
* Disabling Multibyte:: Controlling whether to use multibyte characters.
* Converting Representations:: Converting unibyte to multibyte and vice versa.
* Selecting a Representation:: Treating a byte sequence as unibyte or multi.
* Character Codes:: How unibyte and multibyte relate to
......@@ -140,6 +141,55 @@ This function concatenates all its argument @var{bytes} and makes the
result a unibyte string.
@end defun
@node Disabling Multibyte
@section Disabling Multibyte Characters
@cindex disabling multibyte
By default, Emacs starts in multibyte mode: it stores the contents
of buffers and strings using an internal encoding that represents
non-@acronym{ASCII} characters using multi-byte sequences. Multibyte
mode allows you to use all the supported languages and scripts without
limitations.
@cindex turn multibyte support on or off
Under very special circumstances, you may want to disable multibyte
character support, for a specific buffer.
When multibyte characters are disabled in a buffer, we call
that @dfn{unibyte mode}. In unibyte mode, each character in the
buffer has a character code ranging from 0 through 255 (0377 octal); 0
through 127 (0177 octal) represent @acronym{ASCII} characters, and 128
(0200 octal) through 255 (0377 octal) represent non-@acronym{ASCII}
characters.
To edit a particular file in unibyte representation, visit it using
@code{find-file-literally}. @xref{Visiting Functions}. You can
convert a multibyte buffer to unibyte by saving it to a file, killing
the buffer, and visiting the file again with
@code{find-file-literally}. Alternatively, you can use @kbd{C-x
@key{RET} c} (@code{universal-coding-system-argument}) and specify
@samp{raw-text} as the coding system with which to visit or save a
file. @xref{Text Coding, , Specifying a Coding System for File Text,
emacs, GNU Emacs Manual}. Unlike @code{find-file-literally}, finding
a file as @samp{raw-text} doesn't disable format conversion,
uncompression, or auto mode selection.
@c See http://debbugs.gnu.org/11226 for lack of unibyte tooltip.
@vindex enable-multibyte-characters
The buffer-local variable @code{enable-multibyte-characters} is
non-@code{nil} in multibyte buffers, and @code{nil} in unibyte ones.
The mode line also indicates whether a buffer is multibyte or not.
With a graphical display, in a multibyte buffer, the portion of the
mode line that indicates the character set has a tooltip that (amongst
other things) says that the buffer is multibyte. In a unibyte buffer,
the character set indicator is absent. Thus, in a unibyte buffer
(when using a graphical display) there is normally nothing before the
indication of the visited file's end-of-line convention (colon,
backslash, etc.), unless you are using an input method.
@findex toggle-enable-multibyte-characters
You can turn off multibyte support in a specific buffer by invoking the
command @code{toggle-enable-multibyte-characters} in that buffer.
@node Converting Representations
@section Converting Text Representations
......
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