Commit 708bf232 authored by Richard M. Stallman's avatar Richard M. Stallman
Browse files

Minor cleanups.

parent f69ecc21
......@@ -7,12 +7,12 @@
@cindex entering Emacs
@cindex starting Emacs
The usual way to invoke Emacs is with the shell command @command{emacs}.
Emacs clears the screen and then displays an initial help message and
copyright notice. Some operating systems discard all type-ahead when
Emacs starts up; they give Emacs no way to prevent this. Therefore, it
is advisable to wait until Emacs clears the screen before typing your
first editing command.
The usual way to invoke Emacs is with the shell command
@command{emacs}. Emacs clears the screen and then displays an initial
help message and copyright notice. Some operating systems discard all
type-ahead when Emacs starts up; they give Emacs no way to prevent
this. If you ever use those systems, learn the habit of waiting for
Emacs to clear the screen before typing your first editing command.
If you run Emacs from a shell window under the X Window System, run it
in the background with @command{emacs&}. This way, Emacs does not tie up
......@@ -22,11 +22,12 @@ as soon as you direct your keyboard input to the Emacs frame.
@vindex initial-major-mode
When Emacs starts up, it creates a buffer named @samp{*scratch*}.
That's the buffer you start out in. The @samp{*scratch*} buffer uses Lisp
Interaction mode; you can use it to type Lisp expressions and evaluate
them, or you can ignore that capability and simply doodle. (You can
specify a different major mode for this buffer by setting the variable
@code{initial-major-mode} in your init file. @xref{Init File}.)
That's the buffer you start out in. The @samp{*scratch*} buffer uses
Lisp Interaction mode; you can use it to type Lisp expressions and
evaluate them, or you can ignore that capability and just write notes
in it. (You can specify a different major mode for this buffer by
setting the variable @code{initial-major-mode} in your init file.
@xref{Init File}.)
It is possible to specify files to be visited, Lisp files to be
loaded, and functions to be called, by giving Emacs arguments in the
......@@ -45,7 +46,7 @@ does not make sense. This would fail to take advantage of Emacs's
ability to visit more than one file in a single editing session, and
it would lose the other accumulated context, such as the kill ring,
registers, undo history, and mark ring, that are useful for operating
on multiple files.
on multiple files or even one.
The recommended way to use GNU Emacs is to start it only once, just
after you log in, and do all your editing in the same Emacs session.
......@@ -84,7 +85,8 @@ when running on a text terminal.
@dfn{Iconifying} means replacing the Emacs frame with a small box
somewhere on the screen. This is the usual way to exit Emacs when you're
using a graphics terminal.
using a graphics terminal---if you bother to ``exit'' at all. (Just switching
to another application is usually sufficient.)
@dfn{Killing} Emacs means destroying the Emacs job. You can run Emacs
again later, but you will get a fresh Emacs; there is no way to resume
......@@ -101,14 +103,14 @@ Kill Emacs (@code{save-buffers-kill-emacs}).
@kindex C-z
@findex suspend-emacs
To suspend or iconify Emacs, type @kbd{C-z} (@code{suspend-emacs}).
On text terminals, this suspends Emacs. On graphics terminals,
On text terminals, this suspends Emacs. On graphical displays,
it iconifies the Emacs frame.
Suspending Emacs takes you back to the shell from which you invoked
Emacs. You can resume Emacs with the shell command @command{%emacs}
in most common shells. On systems that don't support suspending
programs, @kbd{C-z} starts an inferior shell that communicates
directly with the terminal. Emacs waits until you exit the subshell.
directly with the terminal, and Emacs waits until you exit the subshell.
(The way to do that is probably with @kbd{C-d} or @command{exit}, but
it depends on which shell you use.) The only way on these systems to
get back to the shell from which Emacs was run (to log out, for
......@@ -122,7 +124,7 @@ a non-@code{nil} value to force @kbd{C-z} to start an inferior shell.
failing to support job control properly, but that is a matter of
taste.)
On graphics terminals, @kbd{C-z} has a different meaning: it runs
On graphical displays, @kbd{C-z} has a different meaning: it runs
the command @code{iconify-or-deiconify-frame}, which temporarily
iconifies (or ``minimizes'') the selected Emacs frame
(@pxref{Frames}). Then you can use the window manager to get back to
......
......@@ -114,10 +114,10 @@ ignored in the example above, and you get the file
the terminal allows it; to disable this, turn off
@code{file-name-shadow-mode} minor mode.
If you set @code{insert-default-directory} to @code{nil}, the default
directory is not inserted in the minibuffer. This way, the minibuffer
starts out empty. But the name you type, if relative, is still
interpreted with respect to the same default directory.
If you set @code{insert-default-directory} to @code{nil}, the
default directory is never inserted in the minibuffer---so the
minibuffer starts out empty. But the name you type, if relative, is
still interpreted with respect to the same default directory.
@node Minibuffer Edit
@section Editing in the Minibuffer
......@@ -128,17 +128,17 @@ entering.
Since @key{RET} in the minibuffer is defined to exit the minibuffer,
you can't use it to insert a newline in the minibuffer. To do that,
type @kbd{C-o} or @kbd{C-q C-j}. (On text terminals, newline is
really the @acronym{ASCII} character control-J.)
The minibuffer has its own window which always has space on the screen
but acts as if it were not there when the minibuffer is not in use. When
the minibuffer is in use, its window is just like the others; you can
switch to another window with @kbd{C-x o}, edit text in other windows and
perhaps even visit more files, before returning to the minibuffer to submit
the argument. You can kill text in another window, return to the
minibuffer window, and then yank the text to use it in the argument.
@xref{Windows}.
type @kbd{C-o} or @kbd{C-q C-j}. (The newline character is really the
@acronym{ASCII} character control-J.)
The minibuffer has its own window, which normally has space on the
Emacs frame at all times, but it only acts like an Emacs window when
the minibuffer is really in use. At those times, its window is much
like any other Emacs window; you can switch from the minibuffer window
to another window with @kbd{C-x o}, and edit text in other windows,
before returning to the minibuffer to submit the argument. You can
kill text in another window, return to the minibuffer window, and then
yank the text to use it in the argument. @xref{Windows}.
@cindex height of minibuffer
@cindex size of minibuffer
......@@ -389,11 +389,11 @@ lists of completions---those always mention all possible completions.
If an element of the list in @code{completion-ignored-extensions} ends
in a slash @file{/}, it indicates a subdirectory that should be ignored
when completing file names. (Elements of
when completing file names. Elements of
@code{completion-ignored-extensions} which do not end in a slash are
never considered when a completion candidate is a directory; thus,
completion returns directories whose names end in @file{.elc} even
though there's an element @code{".elc"} in the list.)
though there's an element @code{".elc"} in the list.
@vindex completion-auto-help
Normally, a completion command that cannot determine even one
......@@ -486,12 +486,9 @@ you reuse it; this does not change the history element that you
``moved'' to, but your new argument does go at the end of the history
list in its own right.
For many minibuffer arguments there is a ``default'' value. In some
cases, the minibuffer history commands know the default value. Then you
can insert the default value into the minibuffer as text by using
@kbd{M-n} to move ``into the future'' in the history. Eventually we
hope to make this feature available whenever the minibuffer has a
default value.
For many minibuffer arguments there is a ``default'' value. Then
you can insert the default value into the minibuffer as text by using
@kbd{M-n} to move ``into the future'' in the history.
@findex previous-matching-history-element
@findex next-matching-history-element
......
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