Commit 82e312c7 authored by Richard M. Stallman's avatar Richard M. Stallman

Major cleanup of unclear or overly picturesque language.

parent 7935c738
......@@ -16,20 +16,20 @@ The characters ">>" at the left margin indicate directions for you to
try using a command. For instance:
<<Blank lines inserted here by startup of help-with-tutorial>>
>> Now type C-v (View next screen) to move to the next screen.
(go ahead, do it by depressing the control key and v together).
From now on, you'll be expected to do this whenever you finish
(go ahead, do it by holding down the control key while typing v).
From now on, you should do this again whenever you finish
reading the screen.
Note that there is an overlap when going from screen to screen; this
provides some continuity when moving through the file.
Note that there is an overlap of two lines when you move from screen
to screen; this provides some continuity so you can continue reading
the text.
The first thing that you need to know is how to move around from
place to place in the file. You already know how to move forward a
screen, with C-v. To move backwards a screen, type M-v (depress the
META key and type v, or type <ESC>v if you don't have a META or EDIT
key).
The first thing that you need to know is how to move around from place
to place in the text. You already know how to move forward one screen,
with C-v. To move backwards one screen, type M-v (hold down the META key
and type v, or type <ESC>v if you do not have a META or EDIT key).
>> Try typing M-v and then C-v to move back and forth a few times.
>> Try typing M-v and then C-v, a few times.
* SUMMARY
......@@ -39,26 +39,28 @@ The following commands are useful for viewing screenfuls:
C-v Move forward one screenful
M-v Move backward one screenful
C-l Clear screen and redisplay everything
putting the text near the cursor at the center.
C-l Clear screen and redisplay all the text,
moving the text around the cursor
to the center of the screen.
(That's control-L, not control-1.)
>> Find the cursor and remember what text is near it.
Then type a C-l.
Find the cursor again and see what text is near it now.
>> Find the cursor, and note what text is near it.
Then type C-l.
Find the cursor again and notice that the same text
is near the cursor now.
* BASIC CURSOR CONTROL
----------------------
Getting from screenful to screenful is useful, but how do you
reposition yourself within a given screen to a specific place?
There are several ways you can do this. One way (not the best, but
the most basic) is to use the commands previous, backward, forward
and next. As you can imagine these commands (which are given to
Emacs as C-p, C-b, C-f, and C-n respectively) move the cursor from
where it currently is to a new place in the given direction. Here,
in a more graphical form are the commands:
Moving from screenful to screenful is useful, but how do you
move to a specific place within the text on the screen?
There are several ways you can do this. The most basic way is to use
the commands C-p, C-b, C-f, and C-n. Each of these commands moves the
cursor one row or column in a particular direction on the screen.
Here is a table showing these four commands and shows the directions
they move:
Previous line, C-p
:
......@@ -66,69 +68,80 @@ in a more graphical form are the commands:
Backward, C-b .... Current cursor position .... Forward, C-f
:
:
Next line, C-n
Next line, C-n
>> Move the cursor to the line in the middle of that diagram
and type C-l to see the whole diagram centered in the screen.
using C-n or C-p. Then type C-l to see the whole diagram
centered in the screen.
You'll probably find it easy to think of these by letter. P for
previous, N for next, B for backward and F for forward. These are
the basic cursor positioning commands and you'll be using them ALL
the time so it would be of great benefit if you learn them now.
You'll probably find it easy to think of these by letter: P for
previous, N for next, B for backward and F for forward. These are the
basic cursor positioning commands, and you'll be using them ALL the
time, so it would be of great benefit if you learn them now.
>> Do a few C-n's to bring the cursor down to this line.
>> Move into the line with C-f's and then up with C-p's.
See what C-p does when the cursor is in the middle of the line.
Lines are separated by Newline characters. For most applications
there should normally be a Newline character at the end of the text,
as well, but it is up to you to make sure of this. A file can
validly exist without a Newline at the end.
Each of text line ends with a Newline character, which serves to
separate it from the following line. The last line in your file ought
to have a Newline at the end (but Emacs does not require have one).
>> Try to C-b at the beginning of a line. It should move to
the end of the previous line. This is because it moves back
across the Newline character.
>> Try to C-b at the beginning of a line. Do a few more C-b's.
Then do C-f's back to the end of the line and beyond.
C-f can move across a Newline just like C-b.
When you go off the top or bottom of the screen, the text beyond
the edge is shifted onto the screen so that your instructions can
be carried out while keeping the cursor on the screen.
>> Do a few more C-b's, so you get a feel for where the cursor is.
Then do C-f's to return to the end of the line.
Then do one more C-f to move to the following line.
>> Try to move the cursor off the bottom of the screen with C-n and
When you move past the top or bottom of the screen, the text beyond
the edge shifts onto the screen. This is called "scrolling". It
enables Emacs to move the cursor to the specified place in the text
without moving it off the screen.
>> Try to move the cursor off the bottom of the screen with C-n, and
see what happens.
If moving by characters is too slow, you can move by words. M-f
(Meta-f) moves forward a word and M-b moves back a word.
>> Type a few M-f's and M-b's. Intersperse them with C-f's and C-b's.
>> Type a few M-f's and M-b's.
When you are in the middle of a word, M-f moves to the end of the word.
When you are in whitespace between words, M-f moves to the end of the
following word. M-b works likewise in the opposite direction.
>> Type M-f and M-b a few times, interspersed with C-f's and C-b's
so that you can observe the action of M-f and M-b from various
places inside and between words.
Notice the parallel between C-f and C-b on the one hand, and M-f and
M-b on the other hand. Very often Meta characters are used for
operations related to English text whereas Control characters operate
on the basic textual units that are independent of what you are
editing (characters, lines, etc). There is a similar parallel between
lines and sentences: C-a and C-e move to the beginning or end of a
line, and M-a and M-e move to the beginning or end of a sentence.
operations related to the units defined by language (words, sentences,
paragraphs), while Control characters operate on basic units that are
independent of what you are editing (characters, lines, etc).
This parallel applies between lines and sentences: C-a and C-e move to
the beginning or end of a line, and M-a and M-e move to the beginning
or end of a sentence.
>> Try a couple of C-a's, and then a couple of C-e's.
Try a couple of M-a's, and then a couple of M-e's.
See how repeated C-a's do nothing, but repeated M-a's keep moving
farther. Do you think that this is right?
Two other simple cursor motion commands are M-< (Meta Less-than),
which moves to the beginning of the file, and M-> (Meta Greater-than),
which moves to the end of the file. You probably don't need to try
them, since finding this spot again will be boring. On most terminals
the "<" is above the comma and you must use the shift key to type it.
On these terminals you must use the shift key to type M-< also;
without the shift key, you would be typing M-comma.
See how repeated C-a's do nothing, but repeated M-a's keep moving one
more sentence. Although these are not quite analogous, each one seems
natural.
The location of the cursor in the text is also called "point". To
paraphrase, the cursor shows on the screen where point is located in
the text.
Here is a summary of simple moving operations including the word and
sentence moving commands:
Here is a summary of simple cursor-moving operations, including the
word and sentence moving commands:
C-f Move forward a character
C-b Move backward a character
......@@ -145,89 +158,118 @@ sentence moving commands:
M-a Move back to beginning of sentence
M-e Move forward to end of sentence
M-< Go to beginning of file
M-> Go to end of file
>> Try all of these commands now a few times for practice.
Since the last two will take you away from this screen,
you can come back here with M-v's and C-v's. These are
the most often used commands.
Like all other commands in Emacs, these commands can be given
arguments which cause them to be executed repeatedly. The way you
give a command a repeat count is by typing C-u and then the digits
before you type the command. If you have a META or EDIT key, you can
omit the C-u if you hold down the META or EDIT key while you type the
digits. This is easier, but we recommend the C-u method because it
works on any terminal.
These are the most often used commands.
Two other important cursor motion commands are M-< (Meta Less-than),
which moves to the beginning of the whole text, and M-> (Meta
Greater-than), which moves to the end of the whole text.
On most terminals, the "<" is above the comma, so you must use the
shift key to type it. On these terminals you must use the shift key
to type M-< also; without the shift key, you would be typing M-comma.
>> Try M-< now, to move to the beginning of the tutorial.
Then use C-v repeatedly to move back here.
>> Try M-> now, to move to the end of the tutorial.
Then use M-v repeatedly to move back here.
You can also move the cursor with the arrow keys, if your terminal has
arrow keys. We recommend learning C-b, C-f, C-n and C-p for three
reasons. First, they work on all kinds of terminals. Second, once
you gain practice at using Emacs, you will find that typing these CTRL
characters is faster than typing the arrow keys (because you do not
have to move your hands away from touch-typing position). Third, once
you form the habit of using these CTRL character commands, you can
easily learn to use other advanced cursor motion commands as well.
Most Emacs commands accept a numeric argument; for most commands, this
serves as a repeat-count. The way you give a command a repeat count
is by typing C-u and then the digits before you type the command. If
you have a META or EDIT key, there is another alternative way to enter
a numeric argument: type the digits while holding down the META or
EDIT key. We recommend learning the C-u method because it works on
any terminal.
For instance, C-u 8 C-f moves forward eight characters.
>> Try giving a suitable argument to C-n or C-p to come as close
as you can to this line in one jump.
>> Try using C-n or C-p with a numeric argument, to move the cursor
to a line near this one with just one command.
The only apparent exception to this is the screen moving commands,
C-v and M-v. When given an argument, they scroll the screen up or
down by that many lines, rather than screenfuls. This proves to be
much more useful.
Most commands use the numeric argument as a repeat count. Certain
exceptional commands use it differently. C-v and M-v are among the
exceptions. When given an argument, they scroll the screen up or down
by that many lines, rather than by a screenfuls. For example, C-u 4
C-v scrolls the screen by 4 lines.
>> Try typing C-u 8 C-v now.
Did it scroll the screen up by 8 lines? If you would like to
scroll it down you can give an argument to M-v.
This should have scrolled the screen up by 8 lines. If you would like
to scroll it down again, you can give an argument to M-v.
If you are using X Windows, there is probably a rectangular area
called a scroll bar at the right hand side of the Emacs window. You
If you are using X Windows, there should be a tall rectangular area
called a scroll bar at the left hand side of the Emacs window. You
can scroll the text by clicking the mouse in the scroll bar.
>> Try pressing the middle button at the top of the highlighted area
within the scroll bar, then moving the mouse while holding that button
down.
within the scroll bar. This should scroll the text to a position
determined by how high or low you click.
>> Move the mouse to a point in the scroll bar about three lines from
the top, and click the left button a couple of times. Then try the
right button a couple of times.
>> Try moving the mouse up and down, while holding the middle button
pressed down. You'll see that the text scrolls up and down as
you move the mouse.
* WHEN EMACS IS HUNG
--------------------
If Emacs gets into an infinite (or simply very long) computation which
you don't want to finish, you can stop it safely by typing C-g.
If Emacs stops responding to your commands, you can stop it safely by
typing C-g. You can use C-g to stop a command which is taking too
long to execute.
You can also use C-g to discard a numeric argument or the beginning of
a command that you don't want to finish.
a command that you do not want to finish.
>> Type C-u 100 to make a numeric arg of 100, then type C-g.
Now type C-f. How many characters does it move?
If you have typed an <ESC> by mistake, you can get rid of it
with a C-g.
Now type C-f. It should move just one character,
because you canceled the argument with C-g.
If you type <ESC> : then you get a new window appearing on the screen,
telling you that M-: is a "disabled command" and asking whether you
really want to execute it. The command M-: is marked as disabled
because we expect it would confuse beginners and you probably don't
want to use it until you know more about Emacs. If you really want to
try the M-: command, you could type a Space in answer to the question,
and M-: would go ahead. Normally, if you do not want to execute M-:,
you would type "n" to answer the question.
If you have typed an <ESC> by mistake, you can get rid of it
with a C-g.
>> Type <ESC> :, then type n.
* DISABLED COMMANDS
-------------------
Some Emacs commands are "disabled" so that beginning users cannot use
them by accident.
If you type one of the disabled commands, Emacs displays a message
saying what the command was, and asking you whether you want to go
ahead and execute the command.
If you really want to try the command, type Space in answer to the
question. Normally, if you do not want to execute the disabled
command, answer the question with "n".
>> Type <ESC> : (which is a disabled command),
then type n to answer the question.
* WINDOWS
---------
Emacs can have several windows, each displaying its own text.
At this stage it is better not to go into the techniques of
using multiple windows. But you do need to know how to get
rid of extra windows that may appear to display help or
output from certain commands. It is simple:
Emacs can have several windows, each displaying its own text. We will
explain later on how to use multiple windows. Right now we want to
explain how to get rid of extra windows and go back to basic
one-window editing. It is simple:
C-x 1 One window (i.e., kill all other windows).
That is Control-x followed by the digit 1.
C-x 1 makes the window which the cursor is in become
the full screen, by getting rid of any other windows.
That is Control-x followed by the digit 1. C-x 1 expands the window
which contains the cursor, to occupy the full screen. It deletes all
other windows.
>> Move the cursor to this line and type C-u 0 C-l.
>> Type Control-h k Control-f.
......@@ -240,8 +282,8 @@ the full screen, by getting rid of any other windows.
* INSERTING AND DELETING
------------------------
If you want to insert text, just type it. Characters which you can
see, such as A, 7, *, etc. are taken by Emacs as text and inserted
If you want to insert text, just type the text. Characters which you
can see, such as A, 7, *, etc. are taken by Emacs as text and inserted
immediately. Type <Return> (the carriage-return key) to insert a
Newline character.
......@@ -252,29 +294,36 @@ some cases, the "Backspace" key serves as <Delete>, but not always!
More generally, <Delete> deletes the character immediately before the
current cursor position.
>> Do this now, type a few characters and then delete them
>> Do this now--type a few characters, then delete them
by typing <Delete> a few times. Don't worry about this file
being changed; you won't affect the master tutorial. This is just
a copy of it.
>> Now start typing text until you reach the right margin, and keep
typing. When a line of text gets too big for one line on the
screen, the line of text is "continued" onto a second screen line.
The backslash at the right margin indicates a line which has
been continued.
being changed; you will not alter the master tutorial. This is
your personal copy of it.
When a line of text gets too big for one line on the screen, the line
of text is "continued" onto a second screen line. A backslash ("\")
at the right margin indicates a line which has been continued.
>> Insert text until you reach the right margin, and keep on inserting.
You'll see a continuation line appear.
>> Use <Delete>s to delete the text until the line fits on one screen
line again. The continuation line goes away.
You can delete a Newline character just like any other character.
Deleting the Newline character between two lines merges them into
one line. If the resulting combined line is too long to fit in the
screen width, it will be displayed with a continuation line.
>> Move the cursor to the beginning of a line and type <Delete>. This
deletes the newline before the line and merges the line onto
the previous line. The resulting line may be too long to fit, in
which case it has a continuation line.
merges that line with the previous line.
>> Type <Return> to reinsert the Newline you deleted.
Remember that most Emacs commands can be given a repeat count;
this includes characters which insert themselves.
this includes text characters. Repeating a text character inserts
it several times.
>> Try that now -- type C-u 8 * and see what happens.
>> Try that now -- type C-u 8 * to insert ********.
You've now learned the most basic way of typing something in
Emacs and correcting errors. You can delete by words or lines
......@@ -290,41 +339,43 @@ as well. Here is a summary of the delete operations:
M-k kill to the end of the current sentence
Notice that <Delete> and C-d vs M-<Delete> and M-d extend the parallel
started by C-f and M-f (well, <Delete> isn't really a control
started by C-f and M-f (well, <Delete> is not really a control
character, but let's not worry about that). C-k and M-k are like C-e
and M-e, sort of, in that lines are opposite sentences.
Now suppose you kill something, and then you decide that you want to
get it back? Well, whenever you kill something bigger than a
character, Emacs saves it for you. To yank it back, use C-y. You
can kill text in one place, move elsewhere, and then do C-y; this is
a good way to move text around. Note that the difference
between "Killing" and "Deleting" something is that "Killed" things
can be yanked back, and "Deleted" things cannot. Generally, the
commands that can destroy a lot of text save it, while the ones that
attack only one character, or nothing but blank lines and spaces, do
not save.
When you delete more than one character at a time, Emacs saves the
deleted text so that you can bring it back. Bringing back killed text
is called "yanking". You can yank the killed text either at the same
place where it was killed, or at some other place in the text. You
can yank the text several times in order to make multiple copies of
it. The command to yank is C-y.
For instance, type C-n a couple times to position the cursor
at some line on this screen.
Note that the difference between "Killing" and "Deleting" something is
that "Killed" things can be yanked back, and "Deleted" things cannot.
Generally, the commands that can remove a lot of text save the text,
while the commands that delete just one character, or just blank lines
and spaces, do not save the deleted text.
>> Do this now, move the cursor and kill that line with C-k.
>> Move the cursor to the beginning of a line which is not empty.
Then type C-k to kill the text on that line.
>> Type C-k a second time. You'll see that it kills the Newline
which follows that line.
Note that a single C-k kills the contents of the line, and a second
C-k kills the line itself, and make all the other lines move up. If
you give C-k a repeat count, it kills that many lines AND their
contents.
C-k kills the line itself, and make all the other lines move up. C-k
treats a numeric argument specially: it kills that many lines AND
their contents. This is not mere repetition. C-u 2 C-k kills two
lines and their newlines; typing C-k twice would not do that.
The text that has just disappeared is saved so that you can
retrieve it. To retrieve the last killed text and put it where
the cursor currently is, type C-y.
To retrieve the last killed text and put it where the cursor currently
is, type C-y.
>> Try it; type C-y to yank the text back.
Think of C-y as if you were yanking something back that someone
took away from you. Notice that if you do several C-k's in a row
the text that is killed is all saved together so that one C-y will
yank all of the lines.
Think of C-y as if you were yanking something back that someone took
away from you. Notice that if you do several C-k's in a row, all of
the killed text is saved together, so that one C-y will yank all of
the lines.
>> Do this now, type C-k several times.
......@@ -338,10 +389,13 @@ you kill something else? C-y would yank the more recent kill. But
the previous text is not lost. You can get back to it using the M-y
command. After you have done C-y to get the most recent kill, typing
M-Y replaces that yanked text with the previous kill. Typing M-y
again and again brings in earlier and earlier kills. When you
have reached the text you are looking for, you can just go away and
leave it there. If you M-y enough times, you come back to the
starting point (the most recent kill).
again and again brings in earlier and earlier kills. When you have
reached the text you are looking for, you do not have to do anything to
keep it. Just go on with your editing, leaving the yanked text where
it is.
If you M-y enough times, you come back to the starting point (the most
recent kill).
>> Kill a line, move around, kill another line.
Then do C-y to get back the second killed line.
......@@ -355,26 +409,28 @@ starting point (the most recent kill).
* UNDO
------
Any time you make a change to the text and wish you had not done so,
you can undo the change (return the text to its previous state)
with the undo command, C-x u. Normally, C-x u undoes one command's
worth of changes; if you repeat the C-x u several times in a row,
each time undoes one more command. There are two exceptions:
commands that made no change (just moved the cursor) do not count,
and self-inserting characters are often lumped together in groups
of up to 20. This is to reduce the number of C-x u's you have to type.
If you make a change to the text, and then decide that it was a
mistake, you can undo the change with the undo command, C-x u.
Normally, C-x u undoes the changes made by one command; if you repeat
the C-x u several times in a row, each repetition undoes one
additional command.
But there are two exceptions: commands that do not change the text do
not count (this includes cursor motion commands and scrolling
command), and self-inserting characters are usually handled in groups
of up to 20. (This is to reduce the number of C-x u's you have to
type to undo insertion of text.)
>> Kill this line with C-k, then type C-x u and it should reappear.
C-_ is another command for undoing; it is just the same as C-x u
but easier to type several times in a row. The problem with C-_ is
that on some keyboards it is not obvious how to type it. That is
why C-x u is provided as well. On some DEC terminals, you can type
C-_ by typing / while holding down CTRL. Illogical, but what can
you expect from DEC?
C-_ is an alternative undo command; it works just the same as C-x u,
but it is easier to type several times in a row. The disadvantage of
C-_ is that on some keyboards it is not obvious how to type it. That
is why we provide C-x u as well. On some terminals, you can type C-_
by typing / while holding down CTRL.
Giving a numeric argument to C-_ or C-x u is equivalent to repeating
it as many times as the argument says.
A numeric argument to C-_ or C-x u acts as a repeat count.
* FILES
......@@ -382,27 +438,31 @@ it as many times as the argument says.
In order to make the text you edit permanent, you must put it in a
file. Otherwise, it will go away when your invocation of Emacs goes
away. You put your editing in a file by "finding" the file. What
finding means is that you see the contents of the file in your Emacs;
and, loosely speaking, what you are editing is the file itself.
However, the changes still don't become permanent until you "save" the
file. This is so you can have control to avoid leaving a half-changed
file around when you don't want to. Even then, Emacs leaves the
original file under a changed name in case your changes turn out
to be a mistake.
away. You put your editing in a file by "finding" the file. (This is
also called "visiting" the file.)
Finding a file means that you see the contents of the file within
Emacs. In many ways, it is as if you were editing the file itself.
However, the changes you make using Emacs do not become permanent
until you "save" the file. This is so you can avoid leaving a
half-changed file on the system when you do not want to. Even when
you save, Emacs leaves the original file under a changed name in case
you later decide that your changes were a mistake.
If you look near the bottom of the screen you will see a line that
begins and ends with dashes, and contains the string "Emacs: TUTORIAL".
Your copy of the Emacs tutorial is called "TUTORIAL". Whatever
file you find, that file's name will appear in that precise
begins and ends with dashes, and contains the string "Emacs:
TUTORIAL". This part of the screen always shows the name of the file
that you are visiting. Right now, you are visiting a file called
"TUTORIAL" which is your personal scratch copy of the Emacs tutorial.
Whatever file you find, that file's name will appear in that precise
spot.
The commands for finding and saving files are unlike the other
commands you have learned in that they consist of two characters.
They both start with the character Control-x. There is a whole series
of commands that start with Control-x; many of them have to do with
files, buffers, and related things, and all of them consist of
Control-x followed by some other character.
files, buffers, and related things. These commands are two, three or
four characters long.
Another thing about the command for finding a file is that you have
to say what file name you want. We say the command "reads an argument
......@@ -411,33 +471,40 @@ file). After you type the command
C-x C-f Find a file
Emacs asks you to type the file name. It echoes on the bottom
line of the screen. You are using the minibuffer now! this is
what the minibuffer is for. When you type <Return> to end the
file name, the minibuffer is no longer needed, so it disappears.
Emacs asks you to type the file name. The file name you type appears
on the bottom line of the screen. The bottom line is called the
minibuffer when it is used for this sort of input. You can use
ordinary Emacs editing commands to edit the file name.
While you are entering the file name (or any minibuffer input),
you can cancel the command with C-g.
>> Type C-x C-f, then type C-g. This cancels the minibuffer,
and also cancels the C-x C-f command that was using the
minibuffer. So you do not find any file.
In a little while the file contents appear on the screen. You can
edit the contents. When you wish to make the changes permanent,
issue the command
When you have finished entering the file name, type <Return> to
terminate it. Then C-x C-f command goes to work, and finds the file
you chose. The minibuffer disappears when the C-x C-f command is
finished.
In a little while the file contents appear on the screen, and you can
edit the contents. When you wish to make your changes permanent,
type the command
C-x C-s Save the file
The contents of Emacs are written into the file. The first time you
do this, the original file is renamed to a new name so that it
is not lost. The new name is made by appending "~" to the end
of the original file's name.
This copies the text within Emacs into the file. The first time you
do this, Emacs renames the original file to a new name so that it is
not lost. The new name is made by adding "~" to the end of the
original file's name.
When saving is finished, Emacs prints the name of the file written.
You should save fairly often, so that you will not lose very much
work if the system should crash.
>> Type C-x C-s, saving your copy of the tutorial.
This should print "Wrote .../TUTORIAL" at the bottom of the screen.
On VMS it will print "Wrote ...[...]TUTORIAL."
This should print "Wrote ...TUTORIAL" at the bottom of the screen.
NOTE: On some systems, typing C-x C-s will freeze the screen and you
will see no further output from Emacs. This indicates that an
......@@ -446,11 +513,13 @@ C-s and not letting it get through to Emacs. To unfreeze the screen,
type C-q. Then see the section "Spontaneous Entry to Incremental
Search" in the Emacs manual for advice on dealing with this "feature".
To make a new file, just find it "as if" it already existed. Then
start typing in the text. When you ask to "save" the file, Emacs
will really create the file with the text that you have inserted.
From then on, you can consider yourself to be editing an already
existing file.
You can find an existing file, to view it or edit it. You can also
find a file which does not already exist. This is the way to create a
file with Emacs: find the file, which will start out empty, and then
begin inserting the text for the file. When you ask to "save" the
file, Emacs will really create the file with the text that you have
inserted. From then on, you can consider yourself to be editing an
already existing file.
* BUFFERS
......@@ -460,9 +529,14 @@ If you find a second file with C-x C-f, the first file remains
inside Emacs. You can switch back to it by finding it again with
C-x C-f. This way you can get quite a number of files inside Emacs.
The object inside Emacs which holds the text read from one file
is called a "buffer." Finding a file makes a new buffer inside Emacs.
To see a list of the buffers that exist in Emacs, type
>> Create a file named "foo" by typing C-x C-f foo <Return>.
Then insert some text, edit it, and save "foo" by typing C-x C-s.
Finally, type C-x C-f TUTORIAL <Return>
to come back to the tutorial.
Emacs stores each file's text inside an object called a "buffer."
Finding a file makes a new buffer inside Emacs. To see a list of the
buffers that current exist in your Emacs job, type
C-x C-b List buffers
......@@ -473,7 +547,7 @@ for the file whose contents it holds. Some buffers do not correspond
to files. For example, the buffer named "*Buffer List*" does
not have any file. It is the buffer which contains the buffer
list that was made by C-x C-b. ANY text you see in an Emacs window
has to be in some buffer.
is always part of some buffer.
>> Type C-x 1 to get rid of the buffer list.
......@@ -487,10 +561,13 @@ it with C-x C-f in order to save it with C-x C-s. So we have
C-x s Save some buffers