Commit a73a3461 authored by Chong Yidong's avatar Chong Yidong
Browse files

Update Emacs Invocation chapter of Emacs manual.

* doc/emacs/cmdargs.texi (Action Arguments): No need to mention
EMACSLOADPATH.
(General Variables): Add xref to Lisp Libraries.
(Initial Options): Copyedits.
(Resume Arguments): Node deleted; emacs.bash/csh are obsolete.
(Environment): Clarify what getenv does.
(General Variables): Clarify EMACSPATH etc.  Emacs does not assume
light backgrounds on xterms.
(Misc Variables): TEMP and TMP are not Windows-specific.
(Display X): Copyedits.
(Colors X): -bd does nothing for GTK.
(Icons X): Gnome 3 doesn't use taskbars.

* doc/emacs/misc.texi (Shell): Document exec-path here.

* doc/emacs/rmail.texi (Movemail): Add xref for exec-path.
parent 9e5788aa
......@@ -133,7 +133,7 @@ buffers.texi cyd
building.texi cyd
calendar.texi
cal-xtra.texi
cmdargs.texi
cmdargs.texi cyd
commands.texi cyd
custom.texi cyd
dired.texi cyd
......
2012-01-14 Chong Yidong <cyd@gnu.org>
* cmdargs.texi (Action Arguments): No need to mention
EMACSLOADPATH.
(General Variables): Add xref to Lisp Libraries.
(Initial Options): Copyedits.
(Resume Arguments): Node deleted; emacs.bash/csh are obsolete.
(Environment): Clarify what getenv does.
(General Variables): Clarify EMACSPATH etc. Emacs does not assume
light backgrounds on xterms.
(Misc Variables): TEMP and TMP are not Windows-specific.
(Display X): Copyedits.
(Colors X): -bd does nothing for GTK.
(Icons X): Gnome 3 doesn't use taskbars.
* misc.texi (Shell): Document exec-path here.
* rmail.texi (Movemail): Add xref for exec-path.
2012-01-13 Glenn Morris <rgm@gnu.org>
* dired.texi (Dired and Find): Clarify find-ls-options.
......
......@@ -65,7 +65,6 @@ arguments.)
and call functions.
* Initial Options:: Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs.
* Command Example:: Examples of using command line arguments.
* Resume Arguments:: Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
* Environment:: Environment variables that Emacs uses.
* Display X:: Changing the default display and using remote login.
* Font X:: Choosing a font for text, under X.
......@@ -124,10 +123,9 @@ Visit @var{file} using @code{find-file}, then go to line number
@opindex --load
@cindex loading Lisp libraries, command-line argument
Load a Lisp library named @var{file} with the function @code{load}.
@xref{Lisp Libraries}. If @var{file} is not an absolute file name,
the library can be found either in the current directory, or in the
Emacs library search path as specified with @env{EMACSLOADPATH}
(@pxref{General Variables}).
If @var{file} is not an absolute file name, Emacs first looks for it
in the current directory, then in the directories listed in
@code{load-path} (@pxref{Lisp Libraries}).
@strong{Warning:} If previous command-line arguments have visited
files, the current directory is the directory of the last file
......@@ -186,11 +184,11 @@ specifically related to the X Window System appear in the following
sections.
Some initial options affect the loading of the initialization file.
The normal actions of Emacs are to first load @file{site-start.el} if
it exists, then your own initialization file @file{~/.emacs} if it
exists, and finally @file{default.el} if it exists. @xref{Init File}.
Certain options prevent loading of some of these files or substitute
other files for them.
Normally, Emacs first loads @file{site-start.el} if it exists, then
your own initialization file if it exists, and finally the default
initialization file @file{default.el} if it exists (@pxref{Init
File}). Certain options prevent loading of some of these files or
substitute other files for them.
@table @samp
@item -chdir @var{directory}
......@@ -207,8 +205,8 @@ stopped. This makes desktop saving and restoring easier.
@itemx --terminal=@var{device}
@opindex --terminal
@cindex device for Emacs terminal I/O
Use @var{device} as the device for terminal input and output.
@samp{--terminal} implies @samp{--no-window-system}.
Use @var{device} as the device for terminal input and output. This
option implies @samp{--no-window-system}.
@item -d @var{display}
@opindex -d
......@@ -252,7 +250,7 @@ terminal's standard input stream (@code{stdin}) instead.
@samp{--batch} implies @samp{-q} (do not load an initialization file),
but @file{site-start.el} is loaded nonetheless. It also causes Emacs
to exit after processing all the command options. In addition, it
disables auto-saving except in buffers for which it has been
disables auto-saving except in buffers for which auto-saving is
explicitly requested.
@item --script @var{file}
......@@ -270,8 +268,8 @@ Emacs. They can start with this text on the first line
@noindent
which will invoke Emacs with @samp{--script} and supply the name of
the script file as @var{file}. Emacs Lisp then treats @samp{#!} as a
comment delimiter.
the script file as @var{file}. Emacs Lisp then treats the @samp{#!}
on this first line as a comment delimiter.
@item -q
@opindex -q
......@@ -280,11 +278,10 @@ comment delimiter.
@cindex bypassing init and @file{default.el} file
@cindex init file, not loading
@cindex @file{default.el} file, not loading
Do not load your Emacs initialization file, and do not load the file
@file{default.el} either (@pxref{Init File}). Regardless of this
switch, @file{site-start.el} is still loaded. When Emacs is invoked
like this, the Customize facility does not allow options to be saved
(@pxref{Easy Customization}).
Do not load any initialization file (@pxref{Init File}). When Emacs
is invoked with this option, the Customize facility does not allow
options to be saved (@pxref{Easy Customization}). This option does
not disable loading @file{site-start.el}.
@item --no-site-file
@opindex --no-site-file
......@@ -371,45 +368,6 @@ also guarantees there will be no problem redirecting output to
@file{log}, because Emacs will not assume that it has a display terminal
to work with.
@node Resume Arguments
@appendixsec Resuming Emacs with Arguments
You can specify action arguments for Emacs when you resume it after
a suspension. To prepare for this, put the following code in your
@file{.emacs} file (@pxref{Hooks}):
@c `resume-suspend-hook' is correct. It is the name of a function.
@example
(add-hook 'suspend-hook 'resume-suspend-hook)
(add-hook 'suspend-resume-hook 'resume-process-args)
@end example
As further preparation, you must execute the shell script
@file{emacs.csh} (if you use csh as your shell) or @file{emacs.bash}
(if you use bash as your shell). These scripts define an alias named
@code{edit}, which will resume Emacs giving it new command line
arguments such as files to visit. The scripts are found in the
@file{etc} subdirectory of the Emacs distribution.
Only action arguments work properly when you resume Emacs. Initial
arguments are not recognized---it's too late to execute them anyway.
Note that resuming Emacs (with or without arguments) must be done from
within the shell that is the parent of the Emacs job. This is why
@code{edit} is an alias rather than a program or a shell script. It is
not possible to implement a resumption command that could be run from
other subjobs of the shell; there is no way to define a command that could
be made the value of @env{EDITOR}, for example. Therefore, this feature
does not take the place of the Emacs Server feature (@pxref{Emacs
Server}).
The aliases use the Emacs Server feature if you appear to have a
server Emacs running. However, they cannot determine this with complete
accuracy. They may think that a server is still running when in
actuality you have killed that Emacs, because the file
@file{/tmp/esrv@dots{}} still exists. If this happens, find that
file and delete it.
@node Environment
@appendixsec Environment Variables
@cindex environment variables
......@@ -424,19 +382,19 @@ letters only. The values are all text strings.
environment automatically from their parent process. This means you
can set up an environment variable in your login shell, and all the
programs you run (including Emacs) will automatically see it.
Subprocesses of Emacs (such as shells, compilers, and version-control
software) inherit the environment from Emacs, too.
Subprocesses of Emacs (such as shells, compilers, and version control
programs) inherit the environment from Emacs, too.
@findex setenv
@findex getenv
@vindex initial-environment
Inside Emacs, the command @kbd{M-x getenv} gets the value of an
environment variable. @kbd{M-x setenv} sets a variable in the Emacs
environment, and @kbd{C-u M-x setenv} removes a variable.
(Environment variable substitutions with @samp{$} work in the value
just as in file names; see @ref{File Names with $}.) The variable
@code{initial-environment} stores the initial environment inherited by
Emacs.
Inside Emacs, the command @kbd{M-x getenv} reads the name of an
environment variable, and prints its value in the echo area. @kbd{M-x
setenv} sets a variable in the Emacs environment, and @kbd{C-u M-x
setenv} removes a variable. (Environment variable substitutions with
@samp{$} work in the value just as in file names; see @ref{File Names
with $}.) The variable @code{initial-environment} stores the initial
environment inherited by Emacs.
The way to set environment variables outside of Emacs depends on the
operating system, and especially the shell that you are using. For
......@@ -483,22 +441,25 @@ This is used to initialize the Lisp variable @code{data-directory}.
Directory for the documentation string file, which is used to
initialize the Lisp variable @code{doc-directory}.
@item EMACSLOADPATH
A colon-separated list of directories@footnote{
Here and below, whenever we say ``colon-separated list of directories,''
it pertains to Unix and GNU/Linux systems. On MS-DOS and MS-Windows,
the directories are separated by semi-colons instead, since DOS/Windows
file names might include a colon after a drive letter.}
to search for Emacs Lisp files---used to initialize @code{load-path}.
A colon-separated list of directories@footnote{ Here and below,
whenever we say ``colon-separated list of directories,'' it pertains
to Unix and GNU/Linux systems. On MS-DOS and MS-Windows, the
directories are separated by semi-colons instead, since DOS/Windows
file names might include a colon after a drive letter.} to search for
Emacs Lisp files. If set, it overrides the usual initial value of the
@code{load-path} variable (@pxref{Lisp Libraries}).
@item EMACSPATH
A colon-separated list of directories to search for executable
files---used to initialize @code{exec-path}.
A colon-separated list of directories to search for executable files.
If set, Emacs uses this in addition to @env{PATH} (see below) when
initializing the variable @code{exec-path} (@pxref{Shell}).
@item EMAIL
@vindex user-mail-address@r{, initialization}
Your email address; used to initialize the Lisp variable
@code{user-mail-address}, which the Emacs mail interface puts into
the @samp{From} header of outgoing messages (@pxref{Mail Headers}).
@code{user-mail-address}, which the Emacs mail interface puts into the
@samp{From} header of outgoing messages (@pxref{Mail Headers}).
@item ESHELL
Used for shell-mode to override the @env{SHELL} environment variable.
Used for shell-mode to override the @env{SHELL} environment variable
(@pxref{Interactive Shell}).
@item HISTFILE
The name of the file that shell commands are saved in between logins.
This variable defaults to @file{~/.bash_history} if you use Bash, to
......@@ -554,23 +515,28 @@ environment and coding system. @xref{Language Environments}.
The user's login name. See also @env{USER}.
@item MAIL
The name of your system mail inbox.
@ifnottex
@item MH
Name of setup file for the mh system. (The default is @file{~/.mh_profile}.)
Name of setup file for the mh system. @xref{Top,,MH-E,mh-e, The Emacs
Interface to MH}.
@end ifnottex
@item NAME
Your real-world name.
Your real-world name. This is used to initialize the variable
@code{user-full-name} (@pxref{Mail Headers}).
@item NNTPSERVER
The name of the news server. Used by the mh and Gnus packages.
@item ORGANIZATION
The name of the organization to which you belong. Used for setting the
`Organization:' header in your posts from the Gnus package.
@item PATH
A colon-separated list of directories in which executables reside. This
is used to initialize the Emacs Lisp variable @code{exec-path}.
A colon-separated list of directories containing executable files.
This is used to initialize the variable @code{exec-path}
(@pxref{Shell}).
@item PWD
If set, this should be the default directory when Emacs was started.
@item REPLYTO
If set, this specifies an initial value for the variable
@code{mail-default-reply-to}. @xref{Mail Headers}.
@code{mail-default-reply-to} (@pxref{Mail Headers}).
@item SAVEDIR
The name of a directory in which news articles are saved by default.
Used by the Gnus package.
......@@ -578,23 +544,29 @@ Used by the Gnus package.
The name of an interpreter used to parse and execute programs run from
inside Emacs.
@item SMTPSERVER
The name of the outgoing mail server. Used by the SMTP library
(@pxref{Top,,,smtpmail,Sending mail via SMTP}).
The name of the outgoing mail server. This is used to initialize the
variable @code{smtpmail-smtp-server} (@pxref{Mail Sending}).
@cindex background mode, on @command{xterm}
@item TERM
The type of the terminal that Emacs is using. This variable must be
set unless Emacs is run in batch mode. On MS-DOS, it defaults to
@samp{internal}, which specifies a built-in terminal emulation that
handles the machine's own display. If the value of @env{TERM} indicates
that Emacs runs in non-windowed mode from @command{xterm} or a similar
terminal emulator, the background mode defaults to @samp{light}, and
Emacs will choose colors that are appropriate for a light background.
handles the machine's own display.
@item TERMCAP
The name of the termcap library file describing how to program the
terminal specified by the @env{TERM} variable. This defaults to
terminal specified by @env{TERM}. This defaults to
@file{/etc/termcap}.
@item TMPDIR
Used by the Emerge package as a prefix for temporary files.
@itemx TMP
@itemx TEMP
These environment variables are used to initialize the variable
@code{temporary-file-directory}, which specifies a directory in which
to put temporary files (@pxref{Backup}). Emacs tries to use
@env{TMPDIR} first; if that is unset, it tries @env{TMP}, then
@env{TEMP}, and finally @file{/tmp}. But on MS-Windows and MS-DOS,
Emacs tries @env{TEMP}, then @env{TMPDIR}, then @env{TMP}, and finally
@file{c:/temp}.
@item TZ
This specifies the current time zone and possibly also daylight
saving time information. On MS-DOS, if @env{TZ} is not set in the
......@@ -624,11 +596,6 @@ variable.
On MS-DOS, this variable defaults to the value of the @env{USER}
variable.
@item TEMP
@itemx TMP
On MS-DOS and MS-Windows, these specify the name of the directory for
storing temporary files in.
@item EMACSTEST
On MS-DOS, this specifies a file to use to log the operation of the
internal terminal emulator. This feature is useful for submitting bug
......@@ -710,27 +677,21 @@ of the settings which on X belong in the @file{.Xdefaults} file
@cindex display name (X Window System)
@cindex @env{DISPLAY} environment variable
The environment variable @env{DISPLAY} tells all X clients, including
Emacs, where to display their windows. Its value is set by default
in ordinary circumstances, when you start an X server and run jobs
locally. Occasionally you may need to specify the display yourself; for
example, if you do a remote login and want to run a client program
remotely, displaying on your local screen.
With Emacs, the main reason people change the default display is to
let them log into another system, run Emacs on that system, but have the
window displayed at their local terminal. You might need to log in
to another system because the files you want to edit are there, or
because the Emacs executable file you want to run is there.
The environment variable @env{DISPLAY} tells all X clients,
including Emacs, where to display their windows. Its value is set by
default in ordinary circumstances, when you start an X server and run
jobs locally. You can specify the display yourself; one reason to do
this is if you want to log into another system and run Emacs there,
and have the window displayed at your local terminal.
@env{DISPLAY} has the syntax
@samp{@var{host}:@var{display}.@var{screen}}, where @var{host} is the
host name of the X Window System server machine, @var{display} is an
arbitrarily-assigned number that distinguishes your server (X
terminal) from other servers on the same machine, and @var{screen} is
a rarely-used field that allows an X server to control multiple
terminal screens. The period and the @var{screen} field are optional.
If included, @var{screen} is usually zero.
a field that allows an X server to control multiple terminal screens.
The period and the @var{screen} field are optional. If included,
@var{screen} is usually zero.
For example, if your host is named @samp{glasperle} and your server is
the first (or perhaps the only) server listed in the configuration, your
......@@ -744,9 +705,9 @@ by changing the @env{DISPLAY} variable, or with the option @samp{-d
emacs --display=glasperle:0 &
@end smallexample
You can inhibit the direct use of the window system and GUI with the
@samp{-nw} option. It tells Emacs to display using ordinary @acronym{ASCII} on
its controlling terminal. This is also an initial option.
You can inhibit the use of the X window system with the @samp{-nw}
option. Then Emacs uses its controlling text terminal for display.
@xref{Initial Options}.
Sometimes, security arrangements prevent a program on a remote system
from displaying on your local system. In this case, trying to run Emacs
......@@ -778,17 +739,17 @@ font:
Use @var{font} as the default font.
@end table
When passing a font specification to Emacs on the command line, you
may need to ``quote'' it, by enclosing it in quotation marks, if it
contains characters that the shell treats specially (e.g.@: spaces).
For example:
When passing a font name to Emacs on the command line, you may need to
``quote'' it, by enclosing it in quotation marks, if it contains
characters that the shell treats specially (e.g.@: spaces). For
example:
@smallexample
emacs -fn "DejaVu Sans Mono-12"
@end smallexample
@xref{Fonts}, for other ways to specify the default font and font name
formats.
@xref{Fonts}, for details about font names and other ways to specify
the default font.
@node Colors X
@appendixsec Window Color Options
......@@ -819,7 +780,8 @@ Specify the background color, overriding the color specified by the
@itemx --border-color=@var{color}
@opindex --border-color
@cindex border color, command-line argument
Specify the color of the border of the X window.
Specify the color of the border of the X window. This has no effect
if Emacs is compiled with GTK+ support.
@item -cr @var{color}
@opindex -cr
@itemx --cursor-color=@var{color}
......@@ -844,11 +806,10 @@ Reverse video---swap the foreground and background colors.
@opindex --color
@cindex standard colors on a character terminal
@cindex override character terminal color support
For a character terminal only, specify the mode of color support.
This option is intended for overriding the number of supported colors
that the character terminal advertises in its @code{termcap} or
@code{terminfo} database. The parameter @var{mode} can be one of the
following:
Set the @dfn{color support mode} when Emacs is run on a text terminal.
This option overrides the number of supported colors that the
character terminal advertises in its @code{termcap} or @code{terminfo}
database. The parameter @var{mode} can be one of the following:
@table @samp
@item never
@itemx no
......@@ -1090,7 +1051,7 @@ Start Emacs in an iconified (``minimized'') state.
@itemx --no-bitmap-icon
@opindex --no-bitmap-icon
@cindex Emacs icon, a gnu
Do not display the Emacs icon.
Disable the use of the Emacs icon.
@end table
Most window managers allow you to ``iconify'' (or ``minimize'') an
......@@ -1102,10 +1063,11 @@ The text frame doesn't appear until you deiconify (or ``un-minimize'')
it.
By default, Emacs uses an icon containing the Emacs logo. On
desktop environments such as Gnome, this icon is also displayed on the
``taskbar''. The @samp{-nbi} or @samp{--no-bitmap-icon} option tells
Emacs to let the window manager choose what sort of icon to
use---usually just a small rectangle containing the frame's title.
desktop environments such as Gnome, this icon is also displayed in
other contexts, e.g.@: when switching into an Emacs frame. The
@samp{-nbi} or @samp{--no-bitmap-icon} option tells Emacs to let the
window manager choose what sort of icon to use---usually just a small
rectangle containing the frame's title.
@node Misc X
@appendixsec Other Display Options
......
......@@ -1104,7 +1104,6 @@ Command Line Arguments for Emacs Invocation
and call functions.
* Initial Options:: Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs.
* Command Example:: Examples of using command line arguments.
* Resume Arguments:: Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
* Environment:: Environment variables that Emacs uses.
* Display X:: Changing the default display and using remote login.
* Font X:: Choosing a font for text, under X.
......
......@@ -1871,10 +1871,9 @@ Add each file name in @var{directory} and all of its nested
subdirectories to the file name cache, using @command{locate} to find
them all.
@item M-x file-cache-add-directory-list @key{RET} @var{variable} @key{RET}
Add each file name in each directory listed in @var{variable}
to the file name cache. @var{variable} should be a Lisp variable
such as @code{load-path} or @code{exec-path}, whose value is a list
of directory names.
Add each file name in each directory listed in @var{variable} to the
file name cache. @var{variable} should be a Lisp variable whose value
is a list of directory names, like @code{load-path}.
@item M-x file-cache-clear-cache @key{RET}
Clear the cache; that is, remove all file names from it.
@end table
......
......@@ -465,6 +465,15 @@ then give commands interactively. Full terminal emulation is
available.
@end table
@vindex exec-path
Whenever you specify a relative file name for an executable program
(either in the @var{cmd} argument to one of the above commands, or in
other contexts), Emacs searches for the program in the directories
specified by the variable @code{exec-path}. The value of this
variable must be a list of directory names; the default value is
initialized from the environment variable @env{PATH} when Emacs is
started (@pxref{General Variables}).
@kbd{M-x eshell} invokes a shell implemented entirely in Emacs. It
is documented in its own manual.
@ifnottex
......@@ -551,11 +560,8 @@ to @command{gpg}. This will output the list of keys to the
The above commands use the shell specified by the variable
@code{shell-file-name}. Its default value is determined by the
@env{SHELL} environment variable when Emacs is started. If the file
name is relative, Emacs searches the directories in the list
@code{exec-path}; this list is initialized based on the environment
variable @env{PATH} when Emacs is started. Your init file can
override either or both of these default initializations (@pxref{Init
File}).
name is relative, Emacs searches the directories listed in
@code{exec-path} (@pxref{Shell}).
To specify a coding system for @kbd{M-!} or @kbd{M-|}, use the command
@kbd{C-x @key{RET} c} immediately beforehand. @xref{Communication Coding}.
......
......@@ -1428,8 +1428,8 @@ This is equivalent to specifying the @samp{file} protocol:
@code{movemail} to use. If that is a string, it specifies the
absolute file name of the @code{movemail} executable. If it is
@code{nil}, Rmail searches for @code{movemail} in the directories
listed in @code{rmail-movemail-search-path} and @code{exec-path}, then
in @code{exec-directory}.
listed in @code{rmail-movemail-search-path}, then in @code{exec-path}
(@pxref{Shell}), then in @code{exec-directory}.
@node Remote Mailboxes
@section Retrieving Mail from Remote Mailboxes
......
......@@ -12,8 +12,7 @@ Maintainer: Sun Yijiang <sunyijiang@gmail.com>
* TUTORIAL.cs:
Author: Milan Zamazal <pdm@zamazal.org>
Pavel Janík <Pavel@Janik.cz>
Maintainer: Milan Zamazal <pdm@zamazal.org>
Pavel Janík <Pavel@Janik.cz>
Maintainer: Maintainer needed.
* TUTORIAL.de:
Author: Werner Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>
......@@ -73,7 +72,7 @@ Maintainer: Alex Ott <ottalex@narod.ru>
* TUTORIAL.sk:
Author: Miroslav Vaško <vasko@debian.cz>
Pavel Janík <Pavel@Janik.cz>
Maintainer: Pavel Janík <Pavel@Janik.cz>
Maintainer: Maintainer needed.
* TUTORIAL.sl:
Author: Primož Peterlin <primoz.peterlin@biofiz.mf.uni-lj.si>
......
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