Commit e428626a authored by Richard M. Stallman's avatar Richard M. Stallman
Browse files

Some nodes moved back from xresources.texi.

parent 82f6e63d
......@@ -60,6 +60,13 @@ the action arguments in the order they are written.
* Command Example:: Examples of using command line arguments.
* Resume Arguments:: Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
* Environment:: Environment variables that Emacs uses.
* Display X:: Changing the default display and using remote login.
* Font X:: Choosing a font for text, under X.
* Colors X:: Choosing colors, under X.
* Window Size X:: Start-up window size, under X.
* Borders X:: Internal and external borders, under X.
* Title X:: Specifying the initial frame's title.
* Icons X:: Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X.
@end menu
@node Action Arguments
......@@ -528,3 +535,416 @@ actually used.
@item WINDOW_GFX
Used when initializing the Sun windows system.
@end table
@node Display X
@appendixsec Specifying the Display Name
@cindex display name (X Window System)
@cindex @env{DISPLAY} environment variable
The environment variable @env{DISPLAY} tells all X clients, including
Emacs, where to display their windows. Its value is set by default
in ordinary circumstances, when you start an X server and run jobs
locally. Occasionally you may need to specify the display yourself; for
example, if you do a remote login and want to run a client program
remotely, displaying on your local screen.
With Emacs, the main reason people change the default display is to
let them log into another system, run Emacs on that system, but have the
window displayed at their local terminal. You might need to log in
to another system because the files you want to edit are there, or
because the Emacs executable file you want to run is there.
The syntax of the @env{DISPLAY} environment variable is
@samp{@var{host}:@var{display}.@var{screen}}, where @var{host} is the
host name of the X Window System server machine, @var{display} is an
arbitrarily-assigned number that distinguishes your server (X terminal)
from other servers on the same machine, and @var{screen} is a
rarely-used field that allows an X server to control multiple terminal
screens. The period and the @var{screen} field are optional. If
included, @var{screen} is usually zero.
For example, if your host is named @samp{glasperle} and your server is
the first (or perhaps the only) server listed in the configuration, your
@env{DISPLAY} is @samp{glasperle:0.0}.
You can specify the display name explicitly when you run Emacs, either
by changing the @env{DISPLAY} variable, or with the option @samp{-d
@var{display}} or @samp{--display=@var{display}}. Here is an example:
@smallexample
emacs --display=glasperle:0 &
@end smallexample
You can inhibit the direct use of the window system and GUI with the
@samp{-nw} option. It tells Emacs to display using ordinary ASCII on
its controlling terminal. This is also an initial option.
Sometimes, security arrangements prevent a program on a remote system
from displaying on your local system. In this case, trying to run Emacs
produces messages like this:
@smallexample
Xlib: connection to "glasperle:0.0" refused by server
@end smallexample
@noindent
You might be able to overcome this problem by using the @code{xhost}
command on the local system to give permission for access from your
remote machine.
@node Font X
@appendixsec Font Specification Options
@cindex font name (X Window System)
By default, Emacs displays text in the font named @samp{9x15}, which
makes each character nine pixels wide and fifteen pixels high. You can
specify a different font on your command line through the option
@samp{-fn @var{name}} (or @samp{--font}, which is an alias for
@samp{-fn}).
@table @samp
@item -fn @var{name}
@opindex -fn
@itemx --font=@var{name}
@opindex --font
@cindex specify default font from the command line
Use font @var{name} as the default font.
@end table
Under X, each font has a long name which consists of eleven words or
numbers, separated by dashes. Some fonts also have shorter
nicknames---@samp{9x15} is such a nickname. You can use either kind of
name. You can use wildcard patterns for the font name; then Emacs lets
X choose one of the fonts that match the pattern. Here is an example,
which happens to specify the font whose nickname is @samp{6x13}:
@smallexample
emacs -fn "-misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-*-*-*-c-60-iso8859-1" &
@end smallexample
@noindent
You can also specify the font in your @file{.Xdefaults} file:
@smallexample
emacs.font: -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-*-*-*-c-60-iso8859-1
@end smallexample
A long font name has the following form:
@smallexample
-@var{maker}-@var{family}-@var{weight}-@var{slant}-@var{widthtype}-@var{style}@dots{}
@dots{}-@var{pixels}-@var{height}-@var{horiz}-@var{vert}-@var{spacing}-@var{width}-@var{charset}
@end smallexample
@table @var
@item maker
This is the name of the font manufacturer.
@item family
This is the name of the font family---for example, @samp{courier}.
@item weight
This is normally @samp{bold}, @samp{medium} or @samp{light}. Other
words may appear here in some font names.
@item slant
This is @samp{r} (roman), @samp{i} (italic), @samp{o} (oblique),
@samp{ri} (reverse italic), or @samp{ot} (other).
@item widthtype
This is normally @samp{condensed}, @samp{extended}, @samp{semicondensed}
or @samp{normal}. Other words may appear here in some font names.
@item style
This is an optional additional style name. Usually it is empty---most
long font names have two hyphens in a row at this point.
@item pixels
This is the font height, in pixels.
@item height
This is the font height on the screen, measured in tenths of a printer's
point---approximately 1/720 of an inch. In other words, it is the point
size of the font, times ten. For a given vertical resolution,
@var{height} and @var{pixels} are proportional; therefore, it is common
to specify just one of them and use @samp{*} for the other.
@item horiz
This is the horizontal resolution, in pixels per inch, of the screen for
which the font is intended.
@item vert
This is the vertical resolution, in pixels per inch, of the screen for
which the font is intended. Normally the resolution of the fonts on
your system is the right value for your screen; therefore, you normally
specify @samp{*} for this and @var{horiz}.
@item spacing
This is @samp{m} (monospace), @samp{p} (proportional) or @samp{c}
(character cell).
@item width
This is the average character width, in pixels, multiplied by ten.
@item charset
This is the character set that the font depicts.
Normally you should use @samp{iso8859-1}.
@end table
@cindex listing system fonts
You will probably want to use a fixed-width default font---that is,
a font in which all characters have the same width. Any font with
@samp{m} or @samp{c} in the @var{spacing} field of the long name is a
fixed-width font. Here's how to use the @code{xlsfonts} program to
list all the fixed-width fonts available on your system:
@example
xlsfonts -fn '*x*' | egrep "^[0-9]+x[0-9]+"
xlsfonts -fn '*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-m*'
xlsfonts -fn '*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-c*'
@end example
@noindent
To see what a particular font looks like, use the @code{xfd} command.
For example:
@example
xfd -fn 6x13
@end example
@noindent
displays the entire font @samp{6x13}.
While running Emacs, you can set the font of the current frame
(@pxref{Frame Parameters}) or for a specific kind of text
(@pxref{Faces}).
@node Colors X
@appendixsec Window Color Options
@cindex color of window
@cindex text colors, from command line
@findex list-colors-display
@cindex available colors
On a color display, you can specify which color to use for various
parts of the Emacs display. To find out what colors are available on
your system, type @kbd{M-x list-colors-display}, or press
@kbd{C-Mouse-2} and select @samp{Display Colors} from the pop-up menu.
If you do not specify colors, on windowed displays the default for the
background is white and the default for all other colors is black. On a
monochrome display, the foreground is black, the background is white,
and the border is gray if the display supports that. On terminals, the
background is usually black and the foreground is white.
Here is a list of the command-line options for specifying colors:
@table @samp
@item -fg @var{color}
@opindex -fg
@itemx --foreground-color=@var{color}
@opindex --foreground-color
@cindex foreground color, command-line argument
Specify the foreground color. @var{color} should be a standard color
name, or a numeric specification of the color's red, green, and blue
components as in @samp{#4682B4} or @samp{RGB:46/82/B4}.
@item -bg @var{color}
@opindex -bg
@itemx --background-color=@var{color}
@opindex --background-color
@cindex background color, command-line argument
Specify the background color.
@item -bd @var{color}
@opindex -bd
@itemx --border-color=@var{color}
@opindex --border-color
@cindex border color, command-line argument
Specify the color of the border of the X window.
@item -cr @var{color}
@opindex -cr
@itemx --cursor-color=@var{color}
@opindex --cursor-color
@cindex cursor color, command-line argument
Specify the color of the Emacs cursor which indicates where point is.
@item -ms @var{color}
@opindex -ms
@itemx --mouse-color=@var{color}
@opindex --mouse-color
@cindex mouse pointer color, command-line argument
Specify the color for the mouse cursor when the mouse is in the Emacs window.
@item -r
@opindex -r
@itemx -rv
@opindex -rv
@itemx --reverse-video
@opindex --reverse-video
@cindex reverse video, command-line argument
Reverse video---swap the foreground and background colors.
@end table
For example, to use a coral mouse cursor and a slate blue text cursor,
enter:
@example
emacs -ms coral -cr 'slate blue' &
@end example
You can reverse the foreground and background colors through the
@samp{-rv} option or with the X resource @samp{reverseVideo}.
The @samp{-fg}, @samp{-bg}, and @samp{-rv} options function on
text-only terminals as well as on window systems.
@node Window Size X
@appendixsec Options for Window Geometry
@cindex geometry of Emacs window
@cindex position and size of Emacs frame
@cindex width and height of Emacs frame
The @samp{--geometry} option controls the size and position of the
initial Emacs frame. Here is the format for specifying the window
geometry:
@table @samp
@item -g @var{width}x@var{height}@r{[@{}+-@r{@}}@var{xoffset}@r{@{}+-@r{@}}@var{yoffset}@r{]]}
@opindex -g
Specify window size @var{width} and @var{height} (measured in character
columns and lines), and positions @var{xoffset} and @var{yoffset}
(measured in pixels).
@item --geometry=@var{width}x@var{height}@r{[@{}+-@r{@}}@var{xoffset}@r{@{}+-@r{@}}@var{yoffset}@r{]]}
@opindex --geometry
This is another way of writing the same thing.
@end table
@noindent
@code{@r{@{}+-@r{@}}} means either a plus sign or a minus sign. A plus
sign before @var{xoffset} means it is the distance from the left side of
the screen; a minus sign means it counts from the right side. A plus
sign before @var{yoffset} means it is the distance from the top of the
screen, and a minus sign there indicates the distance from the bottom.
The values @var{xoffset} and @var{yoffset} may themselves be positive or
negative, but that doesn't change their meaning, only their direction.
Emacs uses the same units as @code{xterm} does to interpret the geometry.
The @var{width} and @var{height} are measured in characters, so a large font
creates a larger frame than a small font. (If you specify a proportional
font, Emacs uses its maximum bounds width as the width unit.) The
@var{xoffset} and @var{yoffset} are measured in pixels.
Since the mode line and the echo area occupy the last 2 lines of the
frame, the height of the initial text window is 2 less than the height
specified in your geometry. In non-X-toolkit versions of Emacs, the
menu bar also takes one line of the specified number. But in the X
toolkit version, the menu bar is additional and does not count against
the specified height. The tool bar, if present, is also additional.
You do not have to specify all of the fields in the geometry
specification.
If you omit both @var{xoffset} and @var{yoffset}, the window manager
decides where to put the Emacs frame, possibly by letting you place
it with the mouse. For example, @samp{164x55} specifies a window 164
columns wide, enough for two ordinary width windows side by side, and 55
lines tall.
The default width for Emacs is 80 characters and the default height is
40 lines. You can omit either the width or the height or both. If
you start the geometry with an integer, Emacs interprets it as the
width. If you start with an @samp{x} followed by an integer, Emacs
interprets it as the height. Thus, @samp{81} specifies just the width;
@samp{x45} specifies just the height.
If you start with @samp{+} or @samp{-}, that introduces an offset,
which means both sizes are omitted. Thus, @samp{-3} specifies the
@var{xoffset} only. (If you give just one offset, it is always
@var{xoffset}.) @samp{+3-3} specifies both the @var{xoffset} and the
@var{yoffset}, placing the frame near the bottom left of the screen.
You can specify a default for any or all of the fields in
@file{.Xdefaults} file, and then override selected fields with a
@samp{--geometry} option.
@node Borders X
@appendixsec Internal and External Borders
@cindex borders (X Window System)
An Emacs frame has an internal border and an external border. The
internal border is an extra strip of the background color around the
text portion of the frame. Emacs itself draws the internal border.
The external border is added by the window manager outside the frame;
depending on the window manager you use, it may contain various boxes
you can click on to move or iconify the window.
@table @samp
@item -ib @var{width}
@opindex -ib
@itemx --internal-border=@var{width}
@opindex --internal-border
@cindex border width, command-line argument
Specify @var{width} as the width of the internal border, in pixels.
@item -bw @var{width}
@opindex -bw
@itemx --border-width=@var{width}
@opindex --border-width
Specify @var{width} as the width of the main border, in pixels.
@end table
When you specify the size of the frame, that does not count the
borders. The frame's position is measured from the outside edge of the
external border.
Use the @samp{-ib @var{n}} option to specify an internal border
@var{n} pixels wide. The default is 1. Use @samp{-bw @var{n}} to
specify the width of the external border (though the window manager may
not pay attention to what you specify). The default width of the
external border is 2.
@node Title X
@appendixsec Frame Titles
An Emacs frame may or may not have a specified title. The frame
title, if specified, appears in window decorations and icons as the
name of the frame. If an Emacs frame has no specified title, the
default title has the form @samp{@var{invocation-name}@@@var{machine}}
(if there is only one frame) or the selected window's buffer name (if
there is more than one frame).
You can specify a title for the initial Emacs frame with a command
line option:
@table @samp
@item -title @var{title}
@opindex --title
@itemx --title=@var{title}
@itemx -T @var{title}
@opindex -T
@cindex frame title, command-line argument
Specify @var{title} as the title for the initial Emacs frame.
@end table
The @samp{--name} option (@pxref{Resources X}) also specifies the title
for the initial Emacs frame.
@node Icons X
@appendixsec Icons
@cindex icons (X Window System)
Most window managers allow the user to ``iconify'' a frame, removing
it from sight, and leaving a small, distinctive ``icon'' window in its
place. Clicking on the icon window makes the frame itself appear again.
If you have many clients running at once, you can avoid cluttering up
the screen by iconifying most of the clients.
@table @samp
@item -i
@opindex -i
@itemx --icon-type
@opindex --icon-type
@cindex Emacs icon, a gnu
Use a picture of a gnu as the Emacs icon.
@item -iconic
@opindex --iconic
@itemx --iconic
@cindex start iconified, command-line argument
Start Emacs in iconified state.
@end table
The @samp{-i} or @samp{--icon-type} option tells Emacs to use an icon
window containing a picture of the GNU gnu. If omitted, Emacs lets the
window manager choose what sort of icon to use---usually just a small
rectangle containing the frame's title.
The @samp{-iconic} option tells Emacs to begin running as an icon,
rather than showing a frame right away. In this situation, the icon
is the only indication that Emacs has started; the text frame doesn't
appear until you deiconify it.
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