Commit fbc164de authored by Paul Eggert's avatar Paul Eggert

Describe new functions and variables for locales.

parent 6ececc4d
......@@ -377,6 +377,10 @@ Shell script mode (sh-script) can now indent scripts for shells
derived from sh and rc. The indentation style is customizeable, and
sh-script can attempt to "learn" the current buffer's style.
** Emacs now attempts to determine the initial language environment
and preferred and locale coding systems systematically from the
LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, and LANG environment variables during startup.
** New language environments `Latin-8' and `Latin-9'.
These correspond respectively to the ISO character sets 8859-14
(Celtic) and 8859-15 (updated Latin-1, with the Euro sign). There is
......@@ -483,6 +487,24 @@ Note that +++ before an item means the Lisp manual has been updated.
When you add a new item, please add it without either +++ or ---
so I will know I still need to look at it -- rms.
** New functions and variables for locales.
The new variable `locale-coding-system' specifies how to encode and
decode strings passed to low-level message functions like strerror and
time functions like strftime. The new variables `messages-locale' and
`time-locale' give the system locales to be used during the next
invocations of these two types of functions; the new variables
`previous-messages-locale' and `previous-time-locale' give the locales
most recently used.
The new function `set-locale-environment' sets the language
environment, preferred coding system, and locale coding system from
the system locale as specified by the LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, and LANG
environment variables. It is normally invoked during startup. It
uses the new variables `locale-language-names',
`locale-charset-language-names', and `locale-preferred-coding-systems'
to make its decisions.
** syntax tables now understand nested comments.
To declare a comment syntax as allowing nesting, just add an `n'
modifier to either of the characters of the comment end and the comment
......@@ -338,14 +338,19 @@ to search for files.
A colon-separated list of directories holding info files. Setting this
variable overrides the setting in @file{paths.el} when Emacs was built.
@item LANG
@itemx LC_ALL
@item LC_ALL
@itemx LC_CTYPE
The user's preferred locale. A locale name which contains
@samp{8859-@var{n}}, @samp{8859_@var{n}} or @samp{8859@var{n}}, where
@var{n} is between 1 and 4, automatically specifies the
@samp{Latin-@var{n}} language environment when Emacs starts up. If
@var{n} is 9, that specifies @samp{Latin-5}.
@itemx LANG
@findex set-locale-environment
@vindex locale-language-names
@vindex locale-charset-language-names
@vindex locale-preferred-coding-systems
The user's locale, matched by @code{set-locale-environment} against
entries in @code{locale-language-names},
@code{locale-charset-language-names}, and
@code{locale-preferred-coding-systems} to select a default language
environment and coding system. The first of these environment variables
with a nonempty value specifies the locale.
The user's login name. See also @code{USER}.
@item MAIL
......@@ -9,23 +9,24 @@
@cindex encoding of characters
@cindex Chinese
@cindex Cyrillic
@cindex Devanagari
@cindex Hindi
@cindex Marathi
@cindex Ethiopian
@cindex Ethiopic
@cindex Greek
@cindex Hebrew
@cindex IPA
@cindex Japanese
@cindex Korean
@cindex Lao
@cindex Russian
@cindex Thai
@cindex Tibetan
@cindex Vietnamese
Emacs supports a wide variety of international character sets,
including European variants of the Latin alphabet, as well as Chinese,
Devanagari (Hindi and Marathi), Ethiopian, Greek, IPA, Japanese, Korean,
Lao, Russian, Thai, Tibetan, and Vietnamese scripts. These features
Cyrillic, Devanagari (Hindi and Marathi), Ethiopic, Greek, Hebrew, IPA,
Japanese, Korean, Lao, Thai, Tibetan, and Vietnamese scripts. These features
have been merged from the modified version of Emacs known as MULE (for
``MULti-lingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs'')
......@@ -147,23 +148,54 @@ also specify the default coding system to use when you create a file.
Each language environment also specifies a default input method.
@findex set-language-environment
The way to select a language environment is with the command @kbd{M-x
@vindex current-language-environment
To select a language environment, customize the option
@code{current-language-environment} or use the command @kbd{M-x
set-language-environment}. It makes no difference which buffer is
current when you use this command, because the effects apply globally to
the Emacs session. The supported language environments include:
Chinese-BIG5, Chinese-CNS, Chinese-GB, Cyrillic-Alternativnyj,
Cyrillic-ISO, Cyrillic-KOI8, Devanagari, English, Ethiopic, Greek,
Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Lao, Latin-1, Latin-2, Latin-3, Latin-4,
Latin-5, Thai, Tibetan, and Vietnamese.
Chinese-BIG5, Chinese-CNS, Chinese-GB, Cyrillic-ALT, Cyrillic-ISO,
Cyrillic-KOI8, Czech, Devanagari, English, Ethiopic, German, Greek,
Hebrew, IPA, Japanese, Korean, Lao, Latin-1, Latin-2, Latin-3,
Latin-4, Latin-5, Latin-8, Latin-9, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Thai,
Tibetan, Turkish, and Vietnamese.
@end quotation
@findex set-locale-environment
@vindex locale-language-names
@vindex locale-charset-language-names
Some operating systems let you specify the language you are using by
setting locale environment variables. Emacs handles one common special
case of this: if your locale name for character types contains the
string @samp{8859-@var{n}}, Emacs automatically selects the
corresponding language environment.
setting the locale environment variables @env{LC_ALL}, @env{LC_CTYPE},
and @env{LANG}; the first of these which is nonempty specifies your
locale. Emacs handles this during startup by invoking the
@code{set-locale-environment} function, which matches your locale
against entries in the value of the variable
@code{locale-language-names} and selects the corresponding language
environment if a match is found. But if your locale also matches an
entry in the variable @code{locale-charset-language-names}, this entry
is preferred if its character set disagrees. For example, suppose the
locale @samp{en_GB.ISO8859-15} matches @code{"Latin-1"} in
@code{locale-language-names} and @code{"Latin-9"} in
@code{locale-charset-language-names}; since these two language
environments' character sets disagree, Emacs uses @code{"Latin-9"}.
@findex set-locale-environment
@vindex locale-preferred-coding-systems
The @code{set-locale-environment} function normally uses the preferred
coding system established by the language environment to decode system
messages. But if your locale matches an entry in the variable
@code{locale-preferred-coding-systems}, Emacs uses the corresponding
coding system instead. For example, if the locale @samp{ja_JP.PCK}
matches @code{japanese-shift-jis} in
@code{locale-preferred-coding-systems}, Emacs uses that encoding even
though it might normally use @code{japanese-iso-8bit}.
The environment chosen from the locale when Emacs starts is
overidden by any explicit use of the command
@code{set-language-environment} or customization of
@code{current-language-environment} in your init file.
@kindex C-h L
@findex describe-language-environment
......@@ -750,6 +782,15 @@ these buffers under the visited file name, saving may use the wrong file
name, or it may get an error. If such a problem happens, use @kbd{C-x
C-w} to specify a new file name for that buffer.
@vindex locale-coding-system
The variable @code{locale-coding-system} specifies a coding system to
use when encoding and decoding system strings such as system error
messages and @code{format-time-string} formats and time stamps. This
coding system should be compatible with the underlying system's coding
system, which is normally specified by the first environment variable in
the list @env{LC_ALL}, @env{LC_CTYPE}, @env{LANG} whose value is
@node Fontsets
@section Fontsets
@cindex fontsets
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