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GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.

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Copyright (C) 2001-2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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See the end of the file for license conditions.

Please send Emacs bug reports to
If possible, use M-x report-emacs-bug.

This file is about changes in Emacs version 22.

See files NEWS.21, NEWS.20, NEWS.19, NEWS.18, and NEWS.1-17 for changes
in older Emacs versions.

You can narrow news to a specific version by calling `view-emacs-news'
with a prefix argument or by typing C-u C-h C-n.
* About external Lisp packages

When you upgrade to Emacs 22 from a previous version, some older
versions of external Lisp packages are known to behave badly.
So in general, it is recommended that you upgrade to the latest
versions of any external Lisp packages that you are using.

You should also be aware that many Lisp packages have been included
with Emacs 22 (see the extensive list below), and you should remove
any older versions of these packages to ensure that the Emacs 22
version is used.  You can use M-x list-load-path-shadows to find such
older packages.

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Some specific packages that are known to cause problems are given
below.  Emacs tries to warn you about these through `bad-packages-alist'.
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** Semantic (used by CEDET, ECB, JDEE): upgrade to latest version.

** cua.el, cua-mode.el: remove old versions.
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* Changes in Emacs 22.3

** Support for several obsolete platforms will be removed in the next
major version of Emacs: Apollo, Acorn, Alliant, Amdahl, Altos 3068,
Bull DPX/2, Bull SPS-7, AT&T UNIX 7300, AT&T 3b, Aviion Berkeley 4.1
to 4.3, Celerity, Clipper, Convergent S series, Convex, Cydra, DG/UX,
Dual, Elxsi, ESIX, Fujitsu F301, GEC 63, Gould, Honeywell XPS100,
i860, IBM ps/2 aix386, Harris CXUX, Harris Night Hawk 1200/3000,
Harris Power PC, HP 9000 series 200 or 300, HLH Orion, Hitachi
SR2001/SR2201, IBM PS/2, Integrated Solutions 386, Integrated
Solutions Optimum V, Iris, Irix < v6, ISC Unix, ISI 68000, Masscomp
5000, Megatest 68000, Motorola System V/88, ns16000, National
Semiconductor 32000, osf1 (s/osf*) Paragon i860, PFU A-series, Plexus,
Pyramid, RTU 3.0, RISCiX SCO 3.2, sh3el, Sinix, Stride, Sun 1-3, Sun
RoadRunner, Sequent Symmetry, Sony News, SunOS 4, System V rel 0 to 3,
Tadpole 68k machines, tahoe, Tandem Integrity S2, targon31, Tektronix,
TI Nu, NCR Tower 32, U-station, Ultrix, UMAX, UniPlus 5.2, Whitechapel
Computer Works MG1, Wicat, and Xenix.

*** Support for systems without alloca will be removed.

*** Support for Sun windows will be removed.

*** Support for VMS will be removed.

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* Incompatible Editing Changes in Emacs 22.3

** The following input methods were removed in Emacs 22.2, but this was
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not advertised: danish-alt-postfix, esperanto-alt-postfix,
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finnish-alt-postfix, german-alt-postfix, icelandic-alt-postfix,
norwegian-alt-postfix, scandinavian-alt-postfix, spanish-alt-postfix,
and swedish-alt-postfix.  Use the versions without "alt-", which are

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* Installation Changes in Emacs 22.2

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** Emacs is now licensed under the GNU GPL version 3 (or later).

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** Support for GNU/kFreeBSD (GNU userland and FreeBSD kernel) was added.

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** Deprecated machine types and operating systems

Certain machine types and operating systems have been deprecated.  On
these systems, configure will print a warning and exit, and you must
edit the configure script for compilation to proceed.  The deprecated
systems will not be supported at all in Emacs 23.  We are not aware of
anyone running Emacs on these systems; if you are, please email to take it off the list of deprecated systems.

*** Deprecated machine types
pmax, hp9000s300, ibm370aix, ncr386, ews4800, mips-siemens, powerpcle,
and tandem-s2

*** Deprecated operating systems
bsd386, bsdos2-1, bsdos2, bsdos3, bsdos4, bsd4-1, bsd4-2, bsd4-3,
usg5-0, usg5-2-2, usg5-2, usg5-3, ultrix4-3, 386bsd, hpux, hpux8,
hpux9, hpux9shr, hpux10, hpux10-20, aix3-1, aix3-2-5, aix3-2, aix4-1,
nextstep, ux4800, uxpds, and uxpv

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* Changes in Emacs 22.2

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** `describe-project' is renamed to `describe-gnu-project'.

** `view-todo' is renamed to `view-emacs-todo'.

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** `find-name-dired' now uses -iname rather than -name
for case-insensitive filesystems.  The default behavior is determined
by the value of `read-file-name-completion-ignore-case'; if you don't
like that, customize the value of the new option `find-name-arg'.

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** In Image mode, whenever the displayed image is wider and/or higher
than the window, the usual keys for moving the cursor cause the image
to be scrolled horizontally or vertically instead.

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** Emacs can use stock icons in the tool bar when compiled with Gtk+.
However, this feature is disabled by default.  To enable it, put

  (setq icon-map-list '(x-gtk-stock-map))

in your .emacs or some other startup file.  For more information, see
the documentation for the two variables icon-map-list and x-gtk-stock-map.

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** Scrollbars follow the system theme on Windows XP and later.
Windows XP introduced themed scrollbars, but applications have to take
special steps to use them. Emacs now has the appropriate resources linked
in to make it use the scrollbars from the system theme.

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** focus-follows-mouse defaults to nil on MS Windows.
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Previously this variable was incorrectly documented as having no effect
on MS Windows, and the default was inappropriate for the majority of
Windows installations. Users of software which modifies the behavior of
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Windows to cause focus to follow the mouse will now need to explicitly set
this variable.

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** `bad-packages-alist' will warn about external packages that are known
to cause problems in this version of Emacs.

** The values of `dired-recursive-deletes' and `dired-recursive-copies'
have been changed to `top'.  This means that the user is asked once,
before deleting/copying the indicated directory recursively.

** `browse-url-emacs' loads a URL into an Emacs buffer.  Handy for *.el URLs.

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** The command gdba has been removed as gdb works now for those cases where it
was needed.  In text command mode, if you have problems before execution has
started, use M-x gud-gdb.

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** desktop.el now detects conflicting uses of the desktop file.
When loading the desktop, desktop.el can now detect that the file is already
in use.  The default behavior is to ask the user what to do, but you can
customize it with the new option `desktop-load-locked-desktop'.  When saving,
desktop.el warns about attempts to overwrite a desktop file if it determines
that the desktop being saved is not an update of the one on disk.

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** Compilation mode now correctly respects the value of
`compilation-scroll-output' between invocations.  Previously, output
was mistakenly scrolled on compiles after the first.  Customize
`compilation-scroll-output' if you want to retain the scrolling.

** `font-lock-comment-face' no longer differs from the default on
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displays with fewer than 16 colors and dark background (e.g. older
xterms and the Linux console).  On such displays, only the comment
delimiters will appear to be fontified (in the new face
`font-lock-comment-delimiter-face').  To restore the old appearance,
customize `font-lock-comment-face'. Another alternative is to use a
newer terminal emulator that supports more colors (256 is now common).
For example, for xterm compatible emulators that support 256 colors,
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you can run emacs like this:
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env TERM=xterm-256color emacs -nw
(This was new in Emacs 22.1, but was not described.  In Emacs 22.1
this also happened for terminals with a light background, that is not
the case anymore).

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* New Modes and Packages in Emacs 22.2

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** bibtex-style-mode helps you write BibTeX's *.bst files.

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** The new package css-mode.el provides a major mode for editing CSS files.

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** The new package vera-mode.el provides a major mode for editing Vera files.

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** The new package verilog-mode.el provides a major mode for editing Verilog files.

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** The new package socks.el implements the SOCKS v5 protocol.

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** VC

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*** VC backends can provide completion of revision names.

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*** VC backends can provide extra menu entries to the "Version Control" menu.
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This can be used to add menu entries for backend specific functions.

*** VC has some support for Mercurial (Hg).

*** VC has some support for Monotone (Mtn).
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*** VC has some support for Bazaar (Bzr).

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*** VC has some support for Git.

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* Incompatible Lisp Changes in Emacs 22.2

** shell.el no longer defines the aliases `dirtrack-toggle' and
`dirtrack-mode' for `shell-dirtrack-mode'.  These names were removed
because they clash with commands provided by dirtrack.el.  Use
`shell-dirtrack-mode' instead.

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* Lisp Changes in Emacs 22.2.

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** Frame-local variables are deprecated and are slated for removal.
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They can easily be emulated.  Rather than calling `make-variable-frame-local'
and accessing the variable value directly, explicitly check for a
frame-parameter, and if there is one, use its value in preference to
that of the variable.  Note that buffer-local values should take
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precedence over frame-local ones, so you may wish to check `local-variable-p'
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** The function invisible-p returns non-nil if the character
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after a specified position is invisible.
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** inhibit-modification-hooks is bound to t while running modification hooks.
As a happy consequence, after-change-functions and before-change-functions
are not bound to nil any more while running an (after|before)-change-function.

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** New function `window-full-width-p' returns t if a window is as wide
as its frame.

** The new function `image-refresh' refreshes all images associated
with a given image specification.

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** The new function `combine-and-quote-strings' concatenates a list of strings
using a specified separator.  If a string contains double quotes, they
are escaped in the output.

** The new function `split-string-and-unquote' performs the inverse operation to
`combine-and-quote-strings', i.e. splits a single string into a list
of strings, undoing any quoting added by `combine-and-quote-strings'.
(For some separator/string combinations, the original strings cannot
be recovered.)
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* Installation Changes in Emacs 22.1

** You can build Emacs with Gtk+ widgets by specifying `--with-x-toolkit=gtk'
when you run configure.  This requires Gtk+ 2.4 or newer.  This port
provides a way to display multilingual text in menus (with some caveats).

** The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual is now part of the distribution.

The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual in Info format is built as part of the
Emacs build procedure and installed together with the Emacs User
Manual.  A menu item was added to the menu bar to make it easily
accessible (Help->More Manuals->Emacs Lisp Reference).

** The Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp manual is now part of
the distribution.

This manual is now part of the standard distribution and is installed,
together with the Emacs User Manual, into the Info directory.  A menu
item was added to the menu bar to make it easily accessible
(Help->More Manuals->Introduction to Emacs Lisp).

** Leim is now part of the Emacs distribution.
You no longer need to download a separate tarball in order to build
Emacs with Leim.

** Support for Mac OS X was added.
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See the files mac/README and mac/INSTALL for build instructions.

** Mac OS 9 port now uses the Carbon API by default.  You can also
create a non-Carbon build by specifying `NonCarbon' as a target.  See
the files mac/README and mac/INSTALL for build instructions.

** Support for a Cygwin build of Emacs was added.

** Support for GNU/Linux systems on X86-64 machines was added.

** Support for GNU/Linux systems on S390 machines was added.

** Support for GNU/Linux systems on Tensilica Xtensa machines was added.

** Support for FreeBSD/Alpha has been added.

** New translations of the Emacs Tutorial are available in the
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following languages: Brazilian Portuguese, Bulgarian, Chinese (both
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with simplified and traditional characters), French, Russian, and
Italian.  Type `C-u C-h t' to choose one of them in case your language
setup doesn't automatically select the right one.

** New translations of the Emacs reference card are available in the
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Brazilian Portuguese and Russian.  The corresponding PostScript files
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are also included.

** A French translation of the `Emacs Survival Guide' is available.

** Emacs now supports new configure options `--program-prefix',
`--program-suffix' and `--program-transform-name' that affect the names of
installed programs.

** By default, Emacs now uses a setgid helper program to update game
scores.  The directory ${localstatedir}/games/emacs is the normal
place for game scores to be stored.  You can control this with the
configure option `--with-game-dir'.  The specific user that Emacs uses
to own the game scores is controlled by `--with-game-user'.  If access
to a game user is not available, then scores will be stored separately
in each user's home directory.

** Emacs now includes support for loading image libraries on demand.
(Currently this feature is only used on MS Windows.)  You can configure
the supported image types and their associated dynamic libraries by
setting the variable `image-library-alist'.

** Emacs can now be built without sound support.

** Emacs Lisp source files are compressed by default if `gzip' is available.

** All images used in Emacs have been consolidated in etc/images and subdirs.
See also the changes to `find-image', documented below.

** Emacs comes with a new set of icons.
These icons are displayed on the taskbar and/or titlebar when Emacs
runs in a graphical environment.  Source files for these icons can be
found in etc/images/icons.  (You can't change the icons displayed by
Emacs by changing these files directly.  On X, the icon is compiled
into the Emacs executable; see gnu.h in the source tree.  On MS
Windows, see nt/icons/emacs.ico.)

** The `emacsserver' program has been removed, replaced with Lisp code.

** The `yow' program has been removed.
Use the corresponding Emacs feature instead.

** The Emacs terminal emulation in term.el uses a different terminfo name.
The Emacs terminal emulation in term.el now uses "eterm-color" as its
terminfo name, since term.el now supports color.

** The script etc/emacs-buffer.gdb can be used with gdb to retrieve the
contents of buffers from a core dump and save them to files easily, should
Emacs crash.

** Building with -DENABLE_CHECKING does not automatically build with union
types any more.  Add -DUSE_LISP_UNION_TYPE if you want union types.

** When pure storage overflows while dumping, Emacs now prints how
much pure storage it will approximately need.

* Startup Changes in Emacs 22.1

** Init file changes
If the init file ~/.emacs does not exist, Emacs will try
~/.emacs.d/init.el or ~/.emacs.d/init.elc.  Likewise, if the shell init file
~/.emacs_SHELL is not found, Emacs will try ~/.emacs.d/

** Emacs can now be invoked in full-screen mode on a windowed display.
When Emacs is invoked on a window system, the new command-line options
`--fullwidth', `--fullheight', and `--fullscreen' produce a frame
whose width, height, or both width and height take up the entire
screen size.  (For now, this does not work with some window managers.)

** Emacs now displays a splash screen by default even if command-line
arguments were given.  The new command-line option --no-splash
disables the splash screen; see also the variable
`inhibit-splash-screen' (which is also aliased as

** New user option `inhibit-startup-buffer-menu'.
When loading many files, for instance with `emacs *', Emacs normally
displays a buffer menu.  This option turns the buffer menu off.

** New command line option -nbc or --no-blinking-cursor disables
the blinking cursor on graphical terminals.

** The option --script FILE runs Emacs in batch mode and loads FILE.
It is useful for writing Emacs Lisp shell script files, because they
can start with this line:

   #!/usr/bin/emacs --script

** The -f option, used from the command line to call a function,
now reads arguments for the function interactively if it is
an interactively callable function.

** The option --directory DIR now modifies `load-path' immediately.
Directories are added to the front of `load-path' in the order they
appear on the command line.  For example, with this command line:

  emacs -batch -L .. -L /tmp --eval "(require 'foo)"

Emacs looks for library `foo' in the parent directory, then in /tmp, then
in the other directories in `load-path'.  (-L is short for --directory.)

** When you specify a frame size with --geometry, the size applies to
all frames you create.  A position specified with --geometry only
affects the initial frame.

** Emacs built for MS-Windows now behaves like Emacs on X does,
with respect to its frame position: if you don't specify a position
(in your .emacs init file, in the Registry, or with the --geometry
command-line option), Emacs leaves the frame position to the Windows'
window manager.

** The command line option --no-windows has been changed to
--no-window-system.  The old one still works, but is deprecated.

** If the environment variable DISPLAY specifies an unreachable X display,
Emacs will now startup as if invoked with the --no-window-system option.

** Emacs now reads the standard abbrevs file ~/.abbrev_defs
automatically at startup, if it exists.  When Emacs offers to save
modified buffers, it saves the abbrevs too if they have changed.  It
can do this either silently or asking for confirmation first,
according to the value of `save-abbrevs'.

** New command line option -Q or --quick.
This is like using -q --no-site-file, but in addition it also disables
the fancy startup screen.

** New command line option -D or --basic-display.
Disables the menu-bar, the tool-bar, the scroll-bars, tool tips, and
the blinking cursor.

** The default is now to use a bitmap as the icon.
The command-line options --icon-type, -i have been replaced with
options --no-bitmap-icon, -nbi to turn the bitmap icon off.

** If the environment variable EMAIL is defined, Emacs now uses its value
to compute the default value of `user-mail-address', in preference to
concatenation of `user-login-name' with the name of your host machine.

* Incompatible Editing Changes in Emacs 22.1

** You can now follow links by clicking Mouse-1 on the link.

See below for more details.

** When the undo information of the current command gets really large
(beyond the value of `undo-outer-limit'), Emacs discards it and warns
you about it.

** When Emacs prompts for file names, SPC no longer completes the file name.
This is so filenames with embedded spaces could be input without the
need to quote the space with a C-q.  The underlying changes in the
keymaps that are active in the minibuffer are described below under
"New keymaps for typing file names".

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If you want the old behavior back, add these two key bindings to your
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~/.emacs init file:

  (define-key minibuffer-local-filename-completion-map
  	      " " 'minibuffer-complete-word)
  (define-key minibuffer-local-must-match-filename-map
  	      " " 'minibuffer-complete-word)

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** The completion commands TAB, SPC and ? in the minibuffer apply only
to the text before point.  If there is text in the buffer after point,
it remains unchanged.

** In incremental search, C-w is changed.  M-%, C-M-w and C-M-y are special.

See below under "incremental search changes".

** M-g is now a prefix key.
M-g g and M-g M-g run goto-line.
M-g n and M-g M-n run next-error (like C-x `).
M-g p and M-g M-p run previous-error.

** C-u M-g M-g switches to the most recent previous buffer,
and goes to the specified line in that buffer.

When goto-line starts to execute, if there's a number in the buffer at
point then it acts as the default argument for the minibuffer.

** M-o now is the prefix key for setting text properties;
M-o M-o requests refontification.

** C-x C-f RET (find-file), typing nothing in the minibuffer, is no longer
a special case.

Since the default input is the current directory, this has the effect
of specifying the current directory.  Normally that means to visit the
directory with Dired.

You can get the old behavior by typing C-x C-f M-n RET, which fetches
the actual file name into the minibuffer.

** In Dired's ! command (dired-do-shell-command), `*' and `?' now
control substitution of the file names only when they are surrounded
by whitespace.  This means you can now use them as shell wildcards
too.  If you want to use just plain `*' as a wildcard, type `*""'; the
doublequotes make no difference in the shell, but they prevent
special treatment in `dired-do-shell-command'.

** The info-search bindings on C-h C-f, C-h C-k and C-h C-i
have been moved to C-h F, C-h K and C-h S.

** `apply-macro-to-region-lines' now operates on all lines that begin
in the region, rather than on all complete lines in the region.

** line-move-ignore-invisible now defaults to t.

** Adaptive filling misfeature removed.
It no longer treats `NNN.' or `(NNN)' as a prefix.

** The old bindings C-M-delete and C-M-backspace have been deleted,
since there are situations where one or the other will shut down
the operating system or your X server.

** The register compatibility key bindings (deprecated since Emacs 19)
have been removed:
  C-x /   point-to-register (Use: C-x r SPC)
  C-x j   jump-to-register  (Use: C-x r j)
  C-x x   copy-to-register  (Use: C-x r s)
  C-x g   insert-register   (Use: C-x r i)

* Editing Changes in Emacs 22.1

** The max size of buffers and integers has been doubled.
On 32bit machines, it is now 256M (i.e. 268435455).

** !MEM FULL! at the start of the mode line indicates that Emacs
cannot get any more memory for Lisp data.  This often means it could
crash soon if you do things that use more memory.  On most systems,
killing buffers will get out of this state.  If killing buffers does
not make !MEM FULL! disappear, you should save your work and start
a new Emacs.

** `undo-only' does an undo which does not redo any previous undo.

** Yanking text now discards certain text properties that can
be inconvenient when you did not expect them.  The variable
`yank-excluded-properties' specifies which ones.  Insertion
of register contents and rectangles also discards these properties.

** New command `kill-whole-line' kills an entire line at once.
By default, it is bound to C-S-<backspace>.

** M-SPC (just-one-space) when given a numeric argument N
converts whitespace around point to N spaces.

** You can now switch buffers in a cyclic order with C-x C-left
(previous-buffer) and C-x C-right (next-buffer).  C-x left and
C-x right can be used as well.  The functions keep a different buffer
cycle for each frame, using the frame-local buffer list.

** C-x 5 C-o displays a specified buffer in another frame
but does not switch to that frame.  It's the multi-frame
analogue of C-x 4 C-o.

** `special-display-buffer-names' and `special-display-regexps' now
understand two new boolean pseudo-frame-parameters `same-frame' and

** New commands to operate on pairs of open and close characters:
`insert-pair', `delete-pair', `raise-sexp'.

** M-x setenv now expands environment variable references.

Substrings of the form `$foo' and `${foo}' in the specified new value
now refer to the value of environment variable foo.  To include a `$'
in the value, use `$$'.

** The default values of paragraph-start and indent-line-function have
been changed to reflect those used in Text mode rather than those used
in Paragraph-Indent Text mode.

** The default for the paper size (variable ps-paper-type) is taken
from the locale.

** Help command changes:

*** Changes in C-h bindings:

C-h e displays the *Messages* buffer.

C-h d runs apropos-documentation.

C-h r visits the Emacs Manual in Info.

C-h followed by a control character is used for displaying files
    that do not change:

C-h C-f displays the FAQ.
C-h C-e displays the PROBLEMS file.

The info-search bindings on C-h C-f, C-h C-k and C-h C-i
have been moved to C-h F, C-h K and C-h S.

C-h c, C-h k, C-h w, and C-h f now handle remapped interactive commands.
- C-h c and C-h k report the actual command (after possible remapping)
  run by the key sequence.
- C-h w and C-h f on a command which has been remapped now report the
  command it is remapped to, and the keys which can be used to run
  that command.

For example, if C-k is bound to kill-line, and kill-line is remapped
to new-kill-line, these commands now report:
- C-h c and C-h k C-k reports:
  C-k runs the command new-kill-line
- C-h w and C-h f kill-line reports:
  kill-line is remapped to new-kill-line which is on C-k, <deleteline>
- C-h w and C-h f new-kill-line reports:
  new-kill-line is on C-k

*** The apropos commands now accept a list of words to match.
When more than one word is specified, at least two of those words must
be present for an item to match.  Regular expression matching is still

*** The new option `apropos-sort-by-scores' causes the matching items
to be sorted according to their score.  The score for an item is a
number calculated to indicate how well the item matches the words or
regular expression that you entered to the apropos command.  The best
match is listed first, and the calculated score is shown for each
matching item.

*** Help commands `describe-function' and `describe-key' now show function
arguments in lowercase italics on displays that support it.  To change the
default, customize face `help-argument-name' or redefine the function

*** C-h v and C-h f commands now include a hyperlink to the C source for
variables and functions defined in C (if the C source is available).

*** Help mode now only makes hyperlinks for faces when the face name is
preceded or followed by the word `face'.  It no longer makes
hyperlinks for variables without variable documentation, unless
preceded by one of the words `variable' or `option'.  It now makes
hyperlinks to Info anchors (or nodes) if the anchor (or node) name is
enclosed in single quotes and preceded by `info anchor' or `Info
anchor' (in addition to earlier `info node' and `Info node').  In
addition, it now makes hyperlinks to URLs as well if the URL is
enclosed in single quotes and preceded by `URL'.

*** The new command `describe-char' (C-u C-x =) pops up a buffer with
description various information about a character, including its
encodings and syntax, its text properties, how to input, overlays, and
widgets at point.  You can get more information about some of them, by
clicking on mouse-sensitive areas or moving there and pressing RET.

*** The command `list-text-properties-at' has been deleted because
C-u C-x = gives the same information and more.

*** New command `display-local-help' displays any local help at point
in the echo area.  It is bound to `C-h .'.  It normally displays the
same string that would be displayed on mouse-over using the
`help-echo' property, but, in certain cases, it can display a more
keyboard oriented alternative.

*** New user option `help-at-pt-display-when-idle' allows you to
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automatically show the help provided by `display-local-help' on
point-over, after suitable idle time.  The amount of idle time is
determined by the user option `help-at-pt-timer-delay' and defaults
to one second.  This feature is turned off by default.

** Mark command changes:

*** A prefix argument is no longer required to repeat a jump to a
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previous mark if you set `set-mark-command-repeat-pop' to t.  I.e. C-u
C-SPC C-SPC C-SPC ... cycles through the mark ring.  Use C-u C-u C-SPC
to set the mark immediately after a jump.
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*** Marking commands extend the region when invoked multiple times.

If you type C-M-SPC (mark-sexp), M-@ (mark-word), M-h
(mark-paragraph), or C-M-h (mark-defun) repeatedly, the marked region
extends each time, so you can mark the next two sexps with M-C-SPC
M-C-SPC, for example.  This feature also works for
mark-end-of-sentence, if you bind that to a key.  It also extends the
region when the mark is active in Transient Mark mode, regardless of
the last command.  To start a new region with one of marking commands
in Transient Mark mode, you can deactivate the active region with C-g,
or set the new mark with C-SPC.

*** Some commands do something special in Transient Mark mode when the
mark is active--for instance, they limit their operation to the
region.  Even if you don't normally use Transient Mark mode, you might
want to get this behavior from a particular command.  There are two
ways you can enable Transient Mark mode and activate the mark, for one
command only.

One method is to type C-SPC C-SPC; this enables Transient Mark mode
and sets the mark at point.  The other method is to type C-u C-x C-x.
This enables Transient Mark mode temporarily but does not alter the
mark or the region.

After these commands, Transient Mark mode remains enabled until you
deactivate the mark.  That typically happens when you type a command
that alters the buffer, but you can also deactivate the mark by typing

*** Movement commands `beginning-of-buffer', `end-of-buffer',
`beginning-of-defun', `end-of-defun' do not set the mark if the mark
is already active in Transient Mark mode.

*** M-h (mark-paragraph) now accepts a prefix arg.

With positive arg, M-h marks the current and the following paragraphs;
if the arg is negative, it marks the current and the preceding

** Incremental Search changes:

*** M-% typed in isearch mode invokes `query-replace' or
`query-replace-regexp' (depending on search mode) with the current
search string used as the string to replace.

*** C-w in incremental search now grabs either a character or a word,
making the decision in a heuristic way.  This new job is done by the
command `isearch-yank-word-or-char'.  To restore the old behavior,
bind C-w to `isearch-yank-word' in `isearch-mode-map'.

*** C-y in incremental search now grabs the next line if point is already
at the end of a line.

*** C-M-w deletes and C-M-y grabs a character in isearch mode.
Another method to grab a character is to enter the minibuffer by `M-e'
and to type `C-f' at the end of the search string in the minibuffer.

*** Vertical scrolling is now possible within incremental search.
To enable this feature, customize the new user option
`isearch-allow-scroll'.  User written commands which satisfy stringent
constraints can be marked as "scrolling commands".  See the Emacs manual
for details.

*** Isearch no longer adds `isearch-resume' commands to the command
history by default.  To enable this feature, customize the new
user option `isearch-resume-in-command-history'.

** Replace command changes:

*** When used interactively, the commands `query-replace-regexp' and
`replace-regexp' allow \,expr to be used in a replacement string,
where expr is an arbitrary Lisp expression evaluated at replacement
time.  `\#' in a replacement string now refers to the count of
replacements already made by the replacement command.  All regular
expression replacement commands now allow `\?' in the replacement
string to specify a position where the replacement string can be
edited for each replacement.  `query-replace-regexp-eval' is now
deprecated since it offers no additional functionality.

*** query-replace uses isearch lazy highlighting when the new user option
`query-replace-lazy-highlight' is non-nil.

*** The current match in query-replace is highlighted in new face
`query-replace' which by default inherits from isearch face.

*** New user option `query-replace-skip-read-only': when non-nil,
`query-replace' and related functions simply ignore
a match if part of it has a read-only property.

** Local variables lists:

*** If the local variables list contains any variable-value pairs that
are not known to be safe, Emacs shows a prompt asking whether to apply
the local variables list as a whole.  In earlier versions, a prompt
was only issued for variables explicitly marked as risky (for the
definition of risky variables, see `risky-local-variable-p').

At the prompt, you can choose to save the contents of this local
variables list to `safe-local-variable-values'.  This new customizable
option is a list of variable-value pairs that are known to be safe.
Variables can also be marked as safe with the existing
`safe-local-variable' property (see `safe-local-variable-p').
However, risky variables will not be added to
`safe-local-variable-values' in this way.

*** The variable `enable-local-variables' controls how local variable
lists are handled.  t, the default, specifies the standard querying
behavior.  :safe means use only safe values, and ignore the rest.
:all means set all variables, whether or not they are safe.
nil means ignore them all.  Anything else means always query.

*** The variable `safe-local-eval-forms' specifies a list of forms that
are ok to evaluate when they appear in an `eval' local variables
specification.  Normally Emacs asks for confirmation before evaluating
such a form, but if the form appears in this list, no confirmation is

*** If a function has a non-nil `safe-local-eval-function' property,
that means it is ok to evaluate some calls to that function when it
appears in an `eval' local variables specification.  If the property
is t, then any form calling that function with constant arguments is
ok.  If the property is a function or list of functions, they are called
with the form as argument, and if any returns t, the form is ok to call.

If the form is not "ok to call", that means Emacs asks for
confirmation as before.

*** In processing a local variables list, Emacs strips the prefix and
suffix from every line before processing all the lines.

*** Text properties in local variables.

A file local variables list cannot specify a string with text
properties--any specified text properties are discarded.

** File operation changes:

*** Unquoted `$' in file names do not signal an error any more when
the corresponding environment variable does not exist.
Instead, the `$ENVVAR' text is left as is, so that `$$' quoting
is only rarely needed.

*** C-x C-f RET, typing nothing in the minibuffer, is no longer a special case.

Since the default input is the current directory, this has the effect
of specifying the current directory.  Normally that means to visit the
directory with Dired.

*** C-x s (save-some-buffers) now offers an option `d' to diff a buffer
against its file, so you can see what changes you would be saving.

*** Auto Compression mode is now enabled by default.

*** If the user visits a file larger than `large-file-warning-threshold',
Emacs asks for confirmation.

*** The commands copy-file, rename-file, make-symbolic-link and
add-name-to-file, when given a directory as the "new name" argument,
convert it to a file name by merging in the within-directory part of
the existing file's name.  (This is the same convention that shell
commands cp, mv, and ln follow.)  Thus, M-x copy-file RET ~/foo RET
/tmp RET copies ~/foo to /tmp/foo.

*** require-final-newline now has two new possible values:

`visit' means add a newline (as an undoable change) if it's needed
when visiting the file.

`visit-save' means add a newline (as an undoable change) if it's
needed when visiting the file, and also add a newline if it's needed
when saving the file.

*** The new option mode-require-final-newline controls how certain
major modes enable require-final-newline.  Any major mode that's
designed for a kind of file that should normally end in a newline
sets require-final-newline based on mode-require-final-newline.
So you can customize mode-require-final-newline to control what these
modes do.

*** When you are root, and you visit a file whose modes specify
read-only, the Emacs buffer is now read-only too.  Type C-x C-q if you
want to make the buffer writable.  (As root, you can in fact alter the

*** find-file-read-only visits multiple files in read-only mode,
when the file name contains wildcard characters.

*** find-alternate-file replaces the current file with multiple files,
when the file name contains wildcard characters.  It now asks if you
wish save your changes and not just offer to kill the buffer.

*** When used interactively, `format-write-file' now asks for confirmation
before overwriting an existing file, unless a prefix argument is
supplied.  This behavior is analogous to `write-file'.

*** The variable `auto-save-file-name-transforms' now has a third element that
controls whether or not the function `make-auto-save-file-name' will
attempt to construct a unique auto-save name (e.g. for remote files).

*** The new option `write-region-inhibit-fsync' disables calls to fsync
in `write-region'.  This can be useful on laptops to avoid spinning up
the hard drive upon each file save.  Enabling this variable may result
in data loss, use with care.

** Minibuffer changes:

*** The completion commands TAB, SPC and ? in the minibuffer apply only
to the text before point.  If there is text in the buffer after point,
it remains unchanged.

*** The new file-name-shadow-mode is turned ON by default, so that when
entering a file name, any prefix which Emacs will ignore is dimmed.

*** There's a new face `minibuffer-prompt'.
Emacs adds this face to the list of text properties stored in the
variable `minibuffer-prompt-properties', which is used to display the
prompt string.

*** Enhanced visual feedback in `*Completions*' buffer.

Completions lists use faces to highlight what all completions
have in common and where they begin to differ.

The common prefix shared by all possible completions uses the face
`completions-common-part', while the first character that isn't the
same uses the face `completions-first-difference'.  By default,
`completions-common-part' inherits from `default', and
`completions-first-difference' inherits from `bold'.  The idea of
`completions-common-part' is that you can use it to make the common
parts less visible than normal, so that the rest of the differing
parts is, by contrast, slightly highlighted.

Above fontification is always done when listing completions is
triggered at minibuffer.  If you want to fontify completions whose
listing is triggered at the other normal buffer, you have to pass
the common prefix of completions to `display-completion-list' as
its second argument.

*** File-name completion can now ignore specified directories.
If an element of the list in `completion-ignored-extensions' ends in a
slash `/', it indicates a subdirectory that should be ignored when
completing file names.  Elements of `completion-ignored-extensions'
which do not end in a slash are never considered when a completion
candidate is a directory.

*** New user option `history-delete-duplicates'.
If set to t when adding a new history element, all previous identical
elements are deleted from the history list.

** Redisplay changes:

*** The new face `mode-line-inactive' is used to display the mode line
of non-selected windows.  The `mode-line' face is now used to display
the mode line of the currently selected window.

The new variable `mode-line-in-non-selected-windows' controls whether
the `mode-line-inactive' face is used.

*** The mode line position information now comes before the major mode.
When the file is maintained under version control, that information
appears between the position information and the major mode.

*** You can now customize the use of window fringes.  To control this
for all frames, use M-x fringe-mode or the Show/Hide submenu of the
top-level Options menu, or customize the `fringe-mode' variable.  To
control this for a specific frame, use the command M-x

*** Angle icons in the fringes can indicate the buffer boundaries.  In
addition, up and down arrow bitmaps in the fringe indicate which ways
the window can be scrolled.

This behavior is activated by setting the buffer-local variable
`indicate-buffer-boundaries' to a non-nil value.  The default value of
this variable is found in `default-indicate-buffer-boundaries'.

If value is `left' or `right', both angle and arrow bitmaps are
displayed in the left or right fringe, resp.

The value can also be an alist which specifies the presence and
position of each bitmap individually.

For example, ((top . left) (t .  right)) places the top angle bitmap
in left fringe, the bottom angle bitmap in right fringe, and both
arrow bitmaps in right fringe.  To show just the angle bitmaps in the
left fringe, but no arrow bitmaps, use ((top . left) (bottom . left)).

*** On window systems, lines which are exactly as wide as the window
(not counting the final newline character) are no longer broken into
two lines on the display (with just the newline on the second line).
Instead, the newline now "overflows" into the right fringe, and the
cursor will be displayed in the fringe when positioned on that newline.

The new user option 'overflow-newline-into-fringe' can be set to nil to
revert to the old behavior of continuing such lines.

*** A window can now have individual fringe and scroll-bar settings,
in addition to the individual display margin settings.

Such individual settings are now preserved when windows are split
horizontally or vertically, a saved window configuration is restored,
or when the frame is resized.

*** When a window has display margin areas, the fringes are now
displayed between the margins and the buffer's text area, rather than
outside those margins.

*** New face `escape-glyph' highlights control characters and escape glyphs.

*** Non-breaking space and hyphens are now displayed with a special
face, either nobreak-space or escape-glyph.  You can turn this off or
specify a different mode by setting the variable `nobreak-char-display'.

*** The parameters of automatic hscrolling can now be customized.
The variable `hscroll-margin' determines how many columns away from
the window edge point is allowed to get before automatic hscrolling
will horizontally scroll the window.  The default value is 5.

The variable `hscroll-step' determines how many columns automatic
hscrolling scrolls the window when point gets too close to the
window edge.  If its value is zero, the default, Emacs scrolls the
window so as to center point.  If its value is an integer, it says how
many columns to scroll.  If the value is a floating-point number, it
gives the fraction of the window's width to scroll the window.

The variable `automatic-hscrolling' was renamed to
`auto-hscroll-mode'.  The old name is still available as an alias.

*** Moving or scrolling through images (and other lines) taller than
the window now works sensibly, by automatically adjusting the window's
vscroll property.

*** Preemptive redisplay now adapts to current load and bandwidth.

To avoid preempting redisplay on fast computers, networks, and displays,
the arrival of new input is now performed at regular intervals during
redisplay.  The new variable `redisplay-preemption-period' specifies
the period; the default is to check for input every 0.1 seconds.

*** The %c and %l constructs are now ignored in frame-title-format.
Due to technical limitations in how Emacs interacts with windowing
systems, these constructs often failed to render properly, and could
even cause Emacs to crash.

*** If value of `auto-resize-tool-bars' is `grow-only', the tool bar
will expand as needed, but not contract automatically.  To contract
the tool bar, you must type C-l.

*** New customize option `overline-margin' controls the space between
overline and text.

*** New variable `x-underline-at-descent-line' controls the relative
position of the underline.  When set, it overrides the
`x-use-underline-position-properties' variables.

** New faces:

*** `mode-line-highlight' is the standard face indicating mouse sensitive
elements on mode-line (and header-line) like `highlight' face on text

*** `mode-line-buffer-id' is the standard face for buffer identification
parts of the mode line.

*** `shadow' face defines the appearance of the "shadowed" text, i.e.
the text which should be less noticeable than the surrounding text.
Paul Eggert's avatar
Paul Eggert committed
This can be achieved by using shades of gray in contrast with either
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black or white default foreground color.  This generic shadow face
allows customization of the appearance of shadowed text in one place,
so package-specific faces can inherit from it.

*** `vertical-border' face is used for the vertical divider between windows.

** Font-Lock (syntax highlighting) changes:

*** All modes now support using M-x font-lock-mode to toggle
fontification, even those such as Occur, Info, and comint-derived
modes that do their own fontification in a special way.

The variable `Info-fontify' is no longer applicable; to disable
fontification in Info, remove `turn-on-font-lock' from

*** New standard font-lock face `font-lock-comment-delimiter-face'.
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This is used for the characters that indicate the start of a comment,
e.g. `;' in Lisp mode.

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*** New standard font-lock face `font-lock-preprocessor-face'.

*** Easy to overlook single character negation can now be font-locked.
You can use the new variable `font-lock-negation-char-face' and the face of
the same name to customize this.  Currently the cc-modes, sh-script-mode,
cperl-mode and make-mode support this.

*** Font-Lock mode: in major modes such as Lisp mode, where some Emacs
features assume that an open-paren in column 0 is always outside of
any string or comment, Font-Lock now highlights any such open-paren in
bold-red if it is inside a string or a comment, to indicate that it
can cause trouble.  You should rewrite the string or comment so that
the open-paren is not in column 0.

*** M-o now is the prefix key for setting text properties;
M-o M-o requests refontification.

*** The default settings for JIT stealth lock parameters are changed.
The default value for the user option jit-lock-stealth-time is now nil
instead of 3.  This setting of jit-lock-stealth-time disables stealth
fontification: on today's machines, it may be a bug in font lock
patterns if fontification otherwise noticeably degrades interactivity.
If you find movement in infrequently visited buffers sluggish (and the
major mode maintainer has no better idea), customizing
jit-lock-stealth-time to a non-nil value will let Emacs fontify
buffers in the background when it considers the system to be idle.
jit-lock-stealth-nice is now 0.5 instead of 0.125 which is supposed to
cause less load than the old defaults.

*** jit-lock can now be delayed with `jit-lock-defer-time'.

If this variable is non-nil, its value should be the amount of Emacs
idle time in seconds to wait before starting fontification.  For
example, if you set `jit-lock-defer-time' to 0.25, fontification will
only happen after 0.25s of idle time.

*** contextual refontification is now separate from stealth fontification.

jit-lock-defer-contextually is renamed jit-lock-contextually and
jit-lock-context-time determines the delay after which contextual
refontification takes place.

*** lazy-lock is considered obsolete.

The `lazy-lock' package is superseded by `jit-lock' and is considered
obsolete.  `jit-lock' is activated by default; if you wish to continue
using `lazy-lock', activate it in your ~/.emacs like this:
  (setq font-lock-support-mode 'lazy-lock-mode)

If you invoke `lazy-lock-mode' directly rather than through
`font-lock-support-mode', it now issues a warning:
  "Use font-lock-support-mode rather than calling lazy-lock-mode"

** Menu support:

*** A menu item "Show/Hide" was added to the top-level menu "Options".
This menu allows you to turn various display features on and off (such
as the fringes, the tool bar, the speedbar, and the menu bar itself).
You can also move the vertical scroll bar to either side here or turn
it off completely.  There is also a menu-item to toggle displaying of
current date and time, current line and column number in the mode-line.

*** Speedbar has moved from the "Tools" top level menu to "Show/Hide".

*** The menu item "Open File..." has been split into two items, "New File..."
and "Open File...".  "Open File..." now opens only existing files.  This is
to support existing GUI file selection dialogs better.

*** The file selection dialog for Gtk+, Mac, W32 and Motif/LessTif can be
disabled by customizing the variable `use-file-dialog'.

*** The pop up menus for Lucid now stay up if you do a fast click and can
be navigated with the arrow keys (like Gtk+, Mac and W32).

*** The menu bar for Motif/LessTif/Lucid/Gtk+ can be navigated with keys.
Pressing F10 shows the first menu in the menu bar.  Navigation is done with
the arrow keys, select with the return key and cancel with the escape keys.

*** The Lucid menus can display multilingual text in your locale.  You have
to explicitly specify a fontSet resource for this to work, for example
`-xrm "Emacs*fontSet:  -*-helvetica-medium-r-*--*-120-*-*-*-*-*-*,*"'.

*** Dialogs for Lucid/Athena and LessTif/Motif now pop down on pressing
ESC, like they do for Gtk+, Mac and W32.

*** For the Gtk+ version, you can make Emacs use the old file dialog
by setting the variable `x-gtk-use-old-file-dialog' to t.  Default is to use
the new dialog.

*** You can exit dialog windows and menus by typing C-g.

** Buffer Menu changes:

*** The new options `buffers-menu-show-directories' and
`buffers-menu-show-status' let you control how buffers are displayed
in the menu dropped down when you click "Buffers" from the menu bar.

`buffers-menu-show-directories' controls whether the menu displays
leading directories as part of the file name visited by the buffer.
If its value is `unless-uniquify', the default, directories are
shown unless uniquify-buffer-name-style' is non-nil.  The value of nil
and t turn the display of directories off and on, respectively.

`buffers-menu-show-status' controls whether the Buffers menu includes
the modified and read-only status of the buffers.  By default it is
t, and the status is shown.

Setting these variables directly does not take effect until next time
the Buffers menu is regenerated.

*** New command `Buffer-menu-toggle-files-only' toggles display of file
buffers only in the Buffer Menu.  It is bound to T in Buffer Menu

*** `buffer-menu' and `list-buffers' now list buffers whose names begin
with a space, when those buffers are visiting files.  Normally buffers
whose names begin with space are omitted.

** Mouse changes:

*** You can now follow links by clicking Mouse-1 on the link.

Traditionally, Emacs uses a Mouse-1 click to set point and a Mouse-2
click to follow a link, whereas most other applications use a Mouse-1
click for both purposes, depending on whether you click outside or
inside a link.  Now the behavior of a Mouse-1 click has been changed
to match this context-sensitive dual behavior.  (If you prefer the old
behavior, set the user option `mouse-1-click-follows-link' to nil.)

Depending on the current mode, a Mouse-2 click in Emacs can do much
more than just follow a link, so the new Mouse-1 behavior is only
activated for modes which explicitly mark a clickable text as a "link"
(see the new function `mouse-on-link-p' for details).  The Lisp
packages that are included in release 22.1 have been adapted to do
this, but external packages may not yet support this.  However, there
is no risk in using such packages, as the worst thing that could
happen is that you get the original Mouse-1 behavior when you click
on a link, which typically means that you set point where you click.

If you want to get the original Mouse-1 action also inside a link, you
just need to press the Mouse-1 button a little longer than a normal
click (i.e. press and hold the Mouse-1 button for half a second before
you release it).

Dragging the Mouse-1 inside a link still performs the original
drag-mouse-1 action, typically copy the text.

You can customize the new Mouse-1 behavior via the new user options
`mouse-1-click-follows-link' and `mouse-1-click-in-non-selected-windows'.

*** If you set the new variable `mouse-autoselect-window' to a non-nil
value, windows are automatically selected as you move the mouse from
one Emacs window to another, even within a frame.  A minibuffer window
can be selected only when it is active.

*** On X, when the window manager requires that you click on a frame to
select it (give it focus), the selected window and cursor position
normally changes according to the mouse click position.  If you set
the variable x-mouse-click-focus-ignore-position to t, the selected
window and cursor position do not change when you click on a frame
to give it focus.

*** Emacs normally highlights mouse sensitive text whenever the mouse
is over the text.  By setting the new variable `mouse-highlight', you
can optionally enable mouse highlighting only after you move the
mouse, so that highlighting disappears when you press a key.  You can
also disable mouse highlighting.

*** You can now customize if selecting a region by dragging the mouse
shall not copy the selected text to the kill-ring by setting the new
variable mouse-drag-copy-region to nil.

*** Under X, mouse-wheel-mode is turned on by default.

*** Emacs ignores mouse-2 clicks while the mouse wheel is being moved.

People tend to push the mouse wheel (which counts as a mouse-2 click)
unintentionally while turning the wheel, so these clicks are now
ignored.  You can customize this with the mouse-wheel-click-event and
mouse-wheel-inhibit-click-time variables.

*** mouse-wheels can now scroll a specific fraction of the window
(rather than a fixed number of lines) and the scrolling is `progressive'.

** Multilingual Environment (Mule) changes:

*** You can disable character translation for a file using the -*-
construct.  Include `enable-character-translation: nil' inside the
-*-...-*- to disable any character translation that may happen by
various global and per-coding-system translation tables.  You can also
specify it in a local variable list at the end of the file.  For
shortcut, instead of using this long variable name, you can append the
character "!" at the end of coding-system name specified in -*-
construct or in a local variable list.  For example, if a file has the
following header, it is decoded by the coding system `iso-latin-1'
without any character translation:
;; -*- coding: iso-latin-1!; -*-

*** Language environment and various default coding systems are setup
more correctly according to the current locale name.  If the locale
name doesn't specify a charset, the default is what glibc defines.
This change can result in using the different coding systems as
default in some locale (e.g. vi_VN).

*** The keyboard-coding-system is now automatically set based on your
current locale settings if you are not using a window system.  This
can mean that the META key doesn't work but generates non-ASCII
characters instead, depending on how the terminal (or terminal
emulator) works.  Use `set-keyboard-coding-system' (or customize
keyboard-coding-system) if you prefer META to work (the old default)
or if the locale doesn't describe the character set actually generated
by the keyboard.  See Info node `Unibyte Mode'.

*** The new command `set-file-name-coding-system' (C-x RET F) sets
coding system for encoding and decoding file names.  A new menu item
(Options->Mule->Set Coding Systems->For File Name) invokes this

*** The new command `revert-buffer-with-coding-system' (C-x RET r)
revisits the current file using a coding system that you specify.

*** New command `recode-region' decodes the region again by a specified
coding system.

*** The new command `recode-file-name' changes the encoding of the name
of a file.

*** New command `ucs-insert' inserts a character specified by its
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*** New command quail-show-key shows what key (or key sequence) to type
in the current input method to input a character at point.

*** Limited support for character `unification' has been added.
Emacs now knows how to translate between different representations of
the same characters in various Emacs charsets according to standard
Unicode mappings.  This applies mainly to characters in the ISO 8859
sets plus some other 8-bit sets, but can be extended.  For instance,
translation works amongst the Emacs ...-iso8859-... charsets and the
mule-unicode-... ones.

By default this translation happens automatically on encoding.
Self-inserting characters are translated to make the input conformant
with the encoding of the buffer in which it's being used, where

You can force a more complete unification with the user option
unify-8859-on-decoding-mode.  That maps all the Latin-N character sets
into Unicode characters (from the latin-iso8859-1 and
mule-unicode-0100-24ff charsets) on decoding.  Note that this mode
will often effectively clobber data with an iso-2022 encoding.

*** New language environments (set up automatically according to the
locale): Belarusian, Bulgarian, Chinese-EUC-TW, Croatian, Esperanto,
French, Georgian, Italian, Latin-7, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam,
Russian, Russian, Slovenian, Swedish, Tajik, Tamil, UTF-8,Ukrainian,
Welsh,Latin-6, Windows-1255.

*** New input methods: latin-alt-postfix, latin-postfix, latin-prefix,
belarusian, bulgarian-bds, bulgarian-phonetic, chinese-sisheng (for
Chinese Pinyin characters), croatian, dutch, georgian, latvian-keyboard,
lithuanian-numeric, lithuanian-keyboard, malayalam-inscript, rfc1345,
russian-computer, sgml, slovenian, tamil-inscript, ukrainian-computer,
ucs, vietnamese-telex, welsh.

*** There is support for decoding Greek and Cyrillic characters into
either Unicode (the mule-unicode charsets) or the iso-8859 charsets,
when possible.  The latter are more space-efficient.
  This is controlled by user option utf-fragment-on-decoding.

*** Improved Thai support.  A new minor mode `thai-word-mode' (which is
automatically activated if you select Thai as a language
environment) changes key bindings of most word-oriented commands to
versions which recognize Thai words.  Affected commands are
    M-f     (forward-word)
    M-b     (backward-word)
    M-d     (kill-word)
    M-DEL   (backward-kill-word)
    M-t     (transpose-words)
    M-q     (fill-paragraph)

*** Indian support has been updated.
The in-is13194 coding system is now Unicode-based.  CDAC fonts are
assumed.  There is a framework for supporting various Indian scripts,
but currently only Devanagari, Malayalam and Tamil are supported.

*** The utf-8/16 coding systems have been enhanced.
By default, untranslatable utf-8 sequences are simply composed into
single quasi-characters.  User option `utf-translate-cjk-mode' (it is
turned on by default) arranges to translate many utf-8 CJK character
sequences into real Emacs characters in a similar way to the Mule-UCS
system.  As this loads a fairly big data on demand, people who are not
interested in CJK characters may want to customize it to nil.
You can augment/amend the CJK translation via hash tables
`ucs-mule-cjk-to-unicode' and `ucs-unicode-to-mule-cjk'.  The utf-8
coding system now also encodes characters from most of Emacs's
one-dimensional internal charsets, specifically the ISO-8859 ones.
The utf-16 coding system is affected similarly.

*** A UTF-7 coding system is available in the library `utf-7'.

*** A new coding system `euc-tw' has been added for traditional Chinese
in CNS encoding; it accepts both Big 5 and CNS as input; on saving,
Big 5 is then converted to CNS.

*** Many new coding systems are available in the `code-pages' library.
These include complete versions of most of those in codepage.el, based
on Unicode mappings.  `codepage-setup' is now obsolete and is used
only in the MS-DOS port of Emacs.  All coding systems defined in
`code-pages' are auto-loaded.

*** New variable `utf-translate-cjk-unicode-range' controls which
Unicode characters to translate in `utf-translate-cjk-mode'.

*** iso-10646-1 (`Unicode') fonts can be used to display any range of
characters encodable by the utf-8 coding system.  Just specify the
fontset appropriately.

** Customize changes:

*** Custom themes are collections of customize options.  Create a
custom theme with M-x customize-create-theme.  Use M-x load-theme to
load and enable a theme, and M-x disable-theme to disable it.  Use M-x
enable-theme to enable a disabled theme.

*** The commands M-x customize-face and M-x customize-face-other-window
now look at the character after point.  If a face or faces are
specified for that character, the commands by default customize those

*** The face-customization widget has been reworked to be less confusing.
In particular, when you enable a face attribute using the corresponding
check-box, there's no longer a redundant `*' option in value selection
for that attribute; the values you can choose are only those which make
sense for the attribute.  When an attribute is de-selected by unchecking
its check-box, then the (now ignored, but still present temporarily in
case you re-select the attribute) value is hidden.

*** When you set or reset a variable's value in a Customize buffer,
the previous value becomes the "backup value" of the variable.
You can go back to that backup value by selecting "Use Backup Value"
under the "[State]" button.

** Dired mode:

*** In Dired's ! command (dired-do-shell-command), `*' and `?' now
control substitution of the file names only when they are surrounded
by whitespace.  This means you can now use them as shell wildcards
too.  If you want to use just plain `*' as a wildcard, type `*""'; the
double quotes make no difference in the shell, but they prevent
special treatment in `dired-do-shell-command'.

*** The Dired command `dired-goto-file' is now bound to j, not M-g.
This is to avoid hiding the global key binding of M-g.

*** New faces dired-header, dired-mark, dired-marked, dired-flagged,
dired-ignored, dired-directory, dired-symlink, dired-warning
introduced for Dired mode instead of font-lock faces.

*** New Dired command `dired-compare-directories' marks files
with different file attributes in two dired buffers.

*** New Dired command `dired-do-touch' (bound to T) changes timestamps
of marked files with the value entered in the minibuffer.

*** In Dired, the w command now stores the current line's file name
into the kill ring.  With a zero prefix arg, it stores the absolute file name.

*** In Dired-x, Omitting files is now a minor mode, dired-omit-mode.

The mode toggling command is bound to M-o.  A new command
dired-mark-omitted, bound to * O, marks omitted files.  The variable
dired-omit-files-p is obsoleted, use the mode toggling function

*** The variables dired-free-space-program and dired-free-space-args
have been renamed to directory-free-space-program and
directory-free-space-args, and they now apply whenever Emacs puts a
directory listing into a buffer.

** Comint changes:

*** The new INSIDE_EMACS environment variable is set to "t" in subshells
running inside Emacs.  This supersedes the EMACS environment variable,
which will be removed in a future Emacs release.  Programs that need
to know whether they are started inside Emacs should check INSIDE_EMACS
instead of EMACS.

*** The comint prompt can now be made read-only, using the new user
option `comint-prompt-read-only'.  This is not enabled by default,
except in IELM buffers.  The read-only status of IELM prompts can be
controlled with the new user option `ielm-prompt-read-only', which
overrides `comint-prompt-read-only'.

The new commands `comint-kill-whole-line' and `comint-kill-region'
support editing comint buffers with read-only prompts.

`comint-kill-whole-line' is like `kill-whole-line', but ignores both
read-only and field properties.  Hence, it always kill entire
lines, including any prompts.

`comint-kill-region' is like `kill-region', except that it ignores
read-only properties, if it is safe to do so.  This means that if any
part of a prompt is deleted, then the entire prompt must be deleted
and that all prompts must stay at the beginning of a line.  If this is
not the case, then `comint-kill-region' behaves just like
`kill-region' if read-only properties are involved: it copies the text
to the kill-ring, but does not delete it.

*** The new command `comint-insert-previous-argument' in comint-derived
modes (shell-mode, etc.) inserts arguments from previous command lines,
like bash's `ESC .' binding.  It is bound by default to `C-c .', but
otherwise behaves quite similarly to the bash version.

*** `comint-use-prompt-regexp-instead-of-fields' has been renamed
`comint-use-prompt-regexp'.  The old name has been kept as an alias,
but declared obsolete.

** M-x Compile changes:

*** M-x compile has become more robust and reliable

Quite a few more kinds of messages are recognized.  Messages that are
recognized as warnings or informational come in orange or green, instead of
red.  Informational messages are by default skipped with `next-error'
(controlled by `compilation-skip-threshold').

Location data is collected on the fly as the *compilation* buffer changes.
This means you could modify messages to make them point to different files.
This also means you can not go to locations of messages you may have deleted.

The variable `compilation-error-regexp-alist' has now become customizable.  If
you had added your own regexps to this, you'll probably need to include a
leading `^', otherwise they'll match anywhere on a line.  There is now also a
`compilation-mode-font-lock-keywords' and it nicely handles all the checks
that configure outputs and -o options so you see at a glance where you are.

The new file etc/compilation.txt gives examples of each type of message.

*** New user option `compilation-environment'.
This option allows you to specify environment variables for inferior
compilation processes without affecting the environment that all
subprocesses inherit.

*** New user option `compilation-disable-input'.
If this is non-nil, send end-of-file as compilation process input.

*** New options `next-error-highlight' and `next-error-highlight-no-select'
specify the method of highlighting of the corresponding source line
in new face `next-error'.

*** A new minor mode `next-error-follow-minor-mode' can be used in
compilation-mode, grep-mode, occur-mode, and diff-mode (i.e. all the
modes that can use `next-error').  In this mode, cursor motion in the
buffer causes automatic display in another window of the corresponding
matches, compilation errors, etc.  This minor mode can be toggled with
C-c C-f.

*** When the left fringe is displayed, an arrow points to current message in
the compilation buffer.

*** The new variable `compilation-context-lines' controls lines of leading
context before the current message.  If nil and the left fringe is displayed,
it doesn't scroll the compilation output window.  If there is no left fringe,
no arrow is displayed and a value of nil means display the message at the top
of the window.

** Occur mode changes:

*** The new command `multi-occur' is just like `occur', except it can
search multiple buffers.  There is also a new command
`multi-occur-in-matching-buffers' which allows you to specify the
buffers to search by their filenames or buffer names.  Internally,
Occur mode has been rewritten, and now uses font-lock, among other

*** You can now use next-error (C-x `) and previous-error to advance to
the next/previous matching line found by M-x occur.

*** In the *Occur* buffer, `o' switches to it in another window, and
C-o displays the current line's occurrence in another window without
switching to it.

** Grep changes:

*** Grep has been decoupled from compilation mode setup.

There's a new separate package grep.el, with its own submenu and
customization group.

*** `grep-find' is now also available under the name `find-grep' where
people knowing `find-grep-dired' would probably expect it.

*** New commands `lgrep' (local grep) and `rgrep' (recursive grep) are
more user-friendly versions of `grep' and `grep-find', which prompt
separately for the regular expression to match, the files to search,
and the base directory for the search.  Case sensitivity of the
search is controlled by the current value of `case-fold-search'.

These commands build the shell commands based on the new variables
`grep-template' (lgrep) and `grep-find-template' (rgrep).

The files to search can use aliases defined in `grep-files-aliases'.

Subdirectories listed in `grep-find-ignored-directories' such as those
typically used by various version control systems, like CVS and arch,
are automatically skipped by `rgrep'.

*** The grep commands provide highlighting support.

Hits are fontified in green, and hits in binary files in orange.  Grep buffers
can be saved and automatically revisited.

*** New option `grep-highlight-matches' highlights matches in *grep*
buffer.  It uses a special feature of some grep programs which accept
--color option to output markers around matches.  When going to the next
match with `next-error' the exact match is highlighted in the source
buffer.  Otherwise, if `grep-highlight-matches' is nil, the whole
source line is highlighted.

*** New key bindings in grep output window:
SPC and DEL scrolls window up and down.  C-n and C-p moves to next and
previous match in the grep window.  RET jumps to the source line of
the current match.  `n' and `p' shows next and previous match in
other window, but does not switch buffer.  `{' and `}' jumps to the
previous or next file in the grep output.  TAB also jumps to the next

*** M-x grep now tries to avoid appending `/dev/null' to the command line
by using GNU grep `-H' option instead.  M-x grep automatically
detects whether this is possible or not the first time it is invoked.
When `-H' is used, the grep command line supplied by the user is passed
unchanged to the system to execute, which allows more complicated
command lines to be used than was possible before.

*** The new variables `grep-window-height' and `grep-scroll-output' override
the corresponding compilation mode settings, for grep commands only.

** Cursor display changes:

*** Emacs can produce an underscore-like (horizontal bar) cursor.
The underscore cursor is set by putting `(cursor-type . hbar)' in
default-frame-alist.  It supports variable heights, like the `bar'
cursor does.

*** The variable `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' can now be set to any
of the recognized cursor types.

*** Display of hollow cursors now obeys the buffer-local value (if any)
of `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' in the buffer that the cursor
appears in.

*** On text terminals, the variable `visible-cursor' controls whether Emacs
uses the "very visible" cursor (the default) or the normal cursor.

*** The X resource cursorBlink can be used to turn off cursor blinking.

*** On X, MS Windows, and Mac OS, the blinking cursor's "off" state is
now controlled by the variable `blink-cursor-alist'.

** X Windows Support:

*** Emacs now supports drag and drop for X.  Dropping a file on a window
opens it, dropping text inserts the text.  Dropping a file on a dired
buffer copies or moves the file to that directory.

*** Under X11, it is possible to swap Alt and Meta (and Super and Hyper).
The new variables `x-alt-keysym', `x-hyper-keysym', `x-meta-keysym',
and `x-super-keysym' can be used to choose which keysyms Emacs should
use for the modifiers.  For example, the following two lines swap
Meta and Alt:
    (setq x-alt-keysym 'meta)
    (setq x-meta-keysym 'alt)

*** The X resource useXIM can be used to turn off use of XIM, which can
speed up Emacs with slow networking to the X server.

If the configure option `--without-xim' was used to turn off use of
XIM by default, the X resource useXIM can be used to turn it on.

*** The new variable `x-select-request-type' controls how Emacs
requests X selection.  The default value is nil, which means that
Emacs requests X selection with types COMPOUND_TEXT and UTF8_STRING,
and use the more appropriately result.

*** The scrollbar under LessTif or Motif has a smoother drag-scrolling.
On the other hand, the size of the thumb does not represent the actual
amount of text shown any more (only a crude approximation of it).

** Xterm support:

*** If you enable Xterm Mouse mode, Emacs will respond to mouse clicks
on the mode line, header line and display margin, when run in an xterm.

*** Improved key bindings support when running in an xterm.
When Emacs is running in an xterm more key bindings are available.
The following should work:
These key bindings work on xterm from 6.8 (and later versions),
they might not work on some older versions of xterm, or on some
proprietary versions.
The various keys generated by xterm when the "modifyOtherKeys"
resource is set are also supported.

** Character terminal color support changes:

*** The new command-line option --color=MODE lets you specify a standard
mode for a tty color support.  It is meant to be used on character
terminals whose capabilities are not set correctly in the terminal
database, or with terminal emulators which support colors, but don't
set the TERM environment variable to a name of a color-capable
terminal.  "emacs --color" uses the same color commands as GNU `ls'
when invoked with "ls --color", so if your terminal can support colors
in "ls --color", it will support "emacs --color" as well.  See the
user manual for the possible values of the MODE parameter.

*** Emacs now supports several character terminals which provide more
than 8 colors.  For example, for `xterm', 16-color, 88-color, and
256-color modes are supported.  Emacs automatically notes at startup
the extended number of colors, and defines the appropriate entries for
all of these colors.

*** Emacs now uses the full range of available colors for the default
faces when running on a color terminal, including 16-, 88-, and
256-color xterms.  This means that when you run "emacs -nw" on an
88-color or 256-color xterm, you will see essentially the same face
colors as on X.

*** There's a new support for colors on `rxvt' terminal emulator.

** ebnf2ps changes:

*** New option `ebnf-arrow-extra-width' which specify extra width for arrow
shape drawing.
The extra width is used to avoid that the arrowhead and the terminal border
overlap.  It depends on `ebnf-arrow-shape' and `ebnf-line-width'.

*** New option `ebnf-arrow-scale' which specify the arrow scale.
Values lower than 1.0, shrink the arrow.
Values greater than 1.0, expand the arrow.
* New Modes and Packages in Emacs 22.1

** CUA mode is now part of the Emacs distribution.

The new cua package provides CUA-like keybindings using C-x for
cut (kill), C-c for copy, C-v for paste (yank), and C-z for undo.
With cua, the region can be set and extended using shifted movement
keys (like pc-selection-mode) and typed text replaces the active
region (like delete-selection-mode).  Do not enable these modes with
cua-mode.  Customize the variable `cua-mode' to enable cua.

The cua-selection-mode enables the CUA keybindings for the region but
does not change the bindings for C-z/C-x/C-c/C-v. It can be used as a
replacement for pc-selection-mode.

In addition, cua provides unified rectangle support with visible
rectangle highlighting: Use C-return to start a rectangle, extend it
using the movement commands (or mouse-3), and cut or copy it using C-x
or C-c (using C-w and M-w also works).

Use M-o and M-c to `open' or `close' the rectangle, use M-b or M-f, to
fill it with blanks or another character, use M-u or M-l to upcase or
downcase the rectangle, use M-i to increment the numbers in the
rectangle, use M-n to fill the rectangle with a numeric sequence (such
as 10 20 30...), use M-r to replace a regexp in the rectangle, and use
M-' or M-/ to restrict command on the rectangle to a subset of the
rows.  See the commentary in cua-base.el for more rectangle commands.

Cua also provides unified support for registers:  Use a numeric
prefix argument between 0 and 9, i.e. M-0 .. M-9, for C-x, C-c, and
C-v to cut or copy into register 0-9, or paste from register 0-9.

The last text deleted (not killed) is automatically stored in
register 0.  This includes text deleted by typing text.

Finally, cua provides a global mark which is set using S-C-space.
When the global mark is active, any text which is cut or copied is
automatically inserted at the global mark position.  See the
commentary in cua-base.el for more global mark related commands.

The features of cua also works with the standard Emacs bindings for
kill, copy, yank, and undo.  If you want to use cua mode, but don't
want the C-x, C-c, C-v, and C-z bindings, you can customize the
`cua-enable-cua-keys' variable.

Note: This version of cua mode is not backwards compatible with older
versions of cua.el and cua-mode.el.  To ensure proper operation, you
must remove older versions of cua.el or cua-mode.el as well as the
loading and customization of those packages from the .emacs file.

** Tramp is now part of the distribution.

This package is similar to Ange-FTP: it allows you to edit remote
files.  But whereas Ange-FTP uses FTP to access the remote host,
Tramp uses a shell connection.  The shell connection is always used
for filename completion and directory listings and suchlike, but for
the actual file transfer, you can choose between the so-called
`inline' methods (which transfer the files through the shell
connection using base64 or uu encoding) and the `out-of-band' methods
(which invoke an external copying program such as `rcp' or `scp' or
`rsync' to do the copying).

Shell connections can be acquired via `rsh', `ssh', `telnet' and also
`su' and `sudo'.  Ange-FTP is still supported via the `ftp' method.

If you want to disable Tramp you should set

  (setq tramp-default-method "ftp")

Removing Tramp, and re-enabling Ange-FTP, can be achieved by M-x

** The image-dired.el package allows you to easily view, tag and in
other ways manipulate image files and their thumbnails, using dired as
the main interface.  Image-Dired provides functionality to generate
simple image galleries.

** Image files are normally visited in Image mode, which lets you toggle
between viewing the image and viewing the text using C-c C-c.

** The new python.el package is used to edit Python and Jython programs.

** The URL package (which had been part of W3) is now part of Emacs.

** Calc is now part of the Emacs distribution.

Calc is an advanced desk calculator and mathematical tool written in
Emacs Lisp.  The prefix for Calc has been changed to `C-x *' and Calc
can be started with `C-x * *'.  The Calc manual is separate from the
Emacs manual; within Emacs, type "C-h i m calc RET" to read the
manual.  A reference card is available in `etc/calccard.tex' and

** Org mode is now part of the Emacs distribution

Org mode is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining ToDo lists, and
doing project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
It also contains a plain-text table editor with spreadsheet-like

The Org mode table editor can be integrated into any major mode by
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activating the minor mode, Orgtbl mode.
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The documentation for org-mode is in a separate manual; within Emacs,
type "C-h i m org RET" to read that manual.  A reference card is
available in `etc/orgcard.tex' and `etc/'.

** ERC is now part of the Emacs distribution.

ERC is a powerful, modular, and extensible IRC client for Emacs.

To see what modules are available, type
M-x customize-option erc-modules RET.

To start an IRC session with ERC, type M-x erc, and follow the prompts
for server, port, and nick.

** Rcirc is now part of the Emacs distribution.

Rcirc is an Internet relay chat (IRC) client.  It supports
simultaneous connections to multiple IRC servers.  Each discussion
takes place in its own buffer.  For each connection you can join
several channels (many-to-many) and participate in private
(one-to-one) chats.  Both channel and private chats are contained in
separate buffers.

To start an IRC session using the default parameters, type M-x irc.
If you type C-u M-x irc, it prompts you for the server, nick, port and
startup channel parameters before connecting.

** The new package ibuffer provides a powerful, completely
customizable replacement for buff-menu.el.

** Newsticker is now part of the Emacs distribution.

Newsticker asynchronously retrieves headlines (RSS) from a list of news
sites, prepares these headlines for reading, and allows for loading the
corresponding articles in a web browser.  Its documentation is in a
separate manual.

** The wdired.el package allows you to use normal editing commands on Dired
buffers to change filenames, permissions, etc...

** Ido mode is now part of the Emacs distribution.

The ido (interactively do) package is an extension of the iswitchb
package to do interactive opening of files and directories in addition
to interactive buffer switching.  Ido is a superset of iswitchb (with
a few exceptions), so don't enable both packages.

** The new global minor mode `file-name-shadow-mode' modifies the way
filenames being entered by the user in the minibuffer are displayed, so
that it's clear when part of the entered filename will be ignored due to
Emacs' filename parsing rules.  The ignored portion can be made dim,
invisible, or otherwise less visually noticeable.  The display method can
be displayed by customizing the variable `file-name-shadow-properties'.

** Emacs' keyboard macro facilities have been enhanced by the new
kmacro package.

Keyboard macros are now defined and executed via the F3 and F4 keys:
F3 starts a macro, F4 ends the macro, and pressing F4 again executes
the last macro.  While defining the macro, F3 inserts a counter value
which automatically increments every time the macro is executed.

There is now a keyboard macro ring which stores the most recently
defined macros.

The C-x C-k sequence is now a prefix for the kmacro keymap which
defines bindings for moving through the keyboard macro ring,
C-x C-k C-p and C-x C-k C-n, editing the last macro C-x C-k C-e,
manipulating the macro counter and format via C-x C-k C-c,
C-x C-k C-a, and C-x C-k C-f.  See the commentary in kmacro.el
for more commands.

The original macro bindings C-x (, C-x ), and C-x e are still
available, but they now interface to the keyboard macro ring too.

The C-x e command now automatically terminates the current macro
before calling it, if used while defining a macro.

In addition, when ending or calling a macro with C-x e, the macro can
be repeated immediately by typing just the `e'.  You can customize
this behavior via the variables kmacro-call-repeat-key and

Keyboard macros can now be debugged and edited interactively.
C-x C-k SPC steps through the last keyboard macro one key sequence
at a time, prompting for the actions to take.

** The new keypad setup package provides several common bindings for
the numeric keypad which is available on most keyboards.  The numeric
keypad typically has the digits 0 to 9, a decimal point, keys marked
+, -, /, and *, an Enter key, and a NumLock toggle key.  The keypad
package only controls the use of the digit and decimal keys.

By customizing the variables `keypad-setup', `keypad-shifted-setup',
`keypad-numlock-setup', and `keypad-numlock-shifted-setup', or by
using the function `keypad-setup', you can rebind all digit keys and
the decimal key of the keypad in one step for each of the four
possible combinations of the Shift key state (not pressed/pressed) and
the NumLock toggle state (off/on).

The choices for the keypad keys in each of the above states are:
`Plain numeric keypad' where the keys generates plain digits,
`Numeric keypad with decimal key' where the character produced by the
decimal key can be customized individually (for internationalization),
`Numeric Prefix Arg' where the keypad keys produce numeric prefix args
for Emacs editing commands, `Cursor keys' and `Shifted Cursor keys'
where the keys work like (shifted) arrow keys, home/end, etc., and
`Unspecified/User-defined' where the keypad keys (kp-0, kp-1, etc.)
are left unspecified and can be bound individually through the global
or local keymaps.

** The printing package is now part of the Emacs distribution.

If you enable the printing package by including (require 'printing) in
the .emacs file, the normal Print item on the File menu is replaced
with a Print sub-menu which allows you to preview output through
ghostview, use ghostscript to print (if you don't have a PostScript
printer) or send directly to printer a PostScript code generated by
`ps-print' package.  Use M-x pr-help for more information.

** The new package longlines.el provides a minor mode for editing text
files composed of long lines, based on the `use-hard-newlines'
mechanism.  The long lines are broken up by inserting soft newlines,
which are automatically removed when saving the file to disk or
copying into the kill ring, clipboard, etc.  By default, Longlines
mode inserts soft newlines automatically during editing, a behavior
referred to as "soft word wrap" in other text editors.  This is
similar to Refill mode, but more reliable.  To turn the word wrap
feature off, set `longlines-auto-wrap' to nil.

** SES mode (ses-mode) is a new major mode for creating and editing
spreadsheet files.  Besides the usual Emacs features (intuitive command
letters, undo, cell formulas in Lisp, plaintext files, etc.) it also offers
viral immunity and import/export of tab-separated values.

** The new package table.el implements editable, WYSIWYG, embedded
`text tables' in Emacs buffers.  It simulates the effect of putting
these tables in a special major mode.  The package emulates WYSIWYG
table editing available in modern word processors.  The package also
can generate a table source in typesetting and markup languages such
as latex and html from the visually laid out text table.

** Filesets are collections of files.  You can define a fileset in
various ways, such as based on a directory tree or based on
program files that include other program files.

Once you have defined a fileset, you can perform various operations on
all the files in it, such as visiting them or searching and replacing
in them.

** The minor mode Reveal mode makes text visible on the fly as you
move your cursor into hidden regions of the buffer.
It should work with any package that uses overlays to hide parts
of a buffer, such as outline-minor-mode, hs-minor-mode, hide-ifdef-mode, ...

There is also Global Reveal mode which affects all buffers.

** New minor mode, Visible mode, toggles invisibility in the current buffer.
When enabled, it makes all invisible text visible.  When disabled, it
restores the previous value of `buffer-invisibility-spec'.

** The new package flymake.el does on-the-fly syntax checking of program
source files.  See the Flymake's Info manual for more details.

** savehist saves minibuffer histories between sessions.
To use this feature, turn on savehist-mode in your `.emacs' file.

** The ruler-mode.el library provides a minor mode for displaying an
"active" ruler in the header line.  You can use the mouse to visually
change the `fill-column', `window-margins' and `tab-stop-list'

** The file t-mouse.el is now part of Emacs and provides access to mouse
events from the console.  It still requires gpm to work but has been updated
for Emacs 22.  In particular, the mode-line is now position sensitive.

** The new package scroll-lock.el provides the Scroll Lock minor mode
for pager-like scrolling.  Keys which normally move point by line or
paragraph will scroll the buffer by the respective amount of lines
instead and point will be kept vertically fixed relative to window
boundaries during scrolling.

** The new global minor mode `size-indication-mode' (off by default)
shows the size of accessible part of the buffer on the mode line.

** The new package conf-mode.el handles thousands of configuration files, with
varying syntaxes for comments (;, #, //, /* */ or !), assignment (var = value,
var : value, var value or keyword var value) and sections ([section] or
section { }).  Many files under /etc/, or with suffixes like .cf through
.config, .properties (Java), .desktop (KDE/Gnome), .ini and many others are

** GDB-Script-mode is used for files like .gdbinit.

** The new package dns-mode.el adds syntax highlighting of DNS master files.
It is a modern replacement for zone-mode.el, which is now obsolete.

** `cfengine-mode' is a major mode for editing GNU Cfengine
configuration files.

** The TCL package tcl-mode.el was replaced by tcl.el.
This was actually done in Emacs-21.1, and was not documented.
* Changes in Specialized Modes and Packages in Emacs 22.1:

** Changes in Dired

*** Bindings for Image-Dired added.
Several new keybindings, all starting with the C-t prefix, have been
added to Dired.  They are all bound to commands in Image-Dired.  As a
starting point, mark some image files in a dired buffer and do C-t d
to display thumbnails of them in a separate buffer.

** Info mode changes

*** Images in Info pages are supported.

Info pages show embedded images, in Emacs frames with image support.
Info documentation that includes images, processed with makeinfo
version 4.7 or newer, compiles to Info pages with embedded images.

*** `Info-index' offers completion.

*** http and ftp links in Info are now operational: they look like cross
references and following them calls `browse-url'.

*** isearch in Info uses Info-search and searches through multiple nodes.

Before leaving the initial Info node isearch fails once with the error
message [initial node], and with subsequent C-s/C-r continues through
other nodes.  When isearch fails for the rest of the manual, it wraps
around the whole manual to the top/final node.  The user option
`Info-isearch-search' controls whether to use Info-search for isearch,
or the default isearch search function that wraps around the current
Info node.

*** New search commands: `Info-search-case-sensitively' (bound to S),
`Info-search-backward', and `Info-search-next' which repeats the last
search without prompting for a new search string.

*** New command `info-apropos' searches the indices of the known
Info files on your system for a string, and builds a menu of the
possible matches.

*** New command `Info-history-forward' (bound to r and new toolbar icon)
moves forward in history to the node you returned from after using
`Info-history-back' (renamed from `Info-last').

*** New command `Info-history' (bound to L) displays a menu of visited nodes.

*** New command `Info-toc' (bound to T) creates a node with table of contents
from the tree structure of menus of the current Info file.

*** New command `Info-copy-current-node-name' (bound to w) copies
the current Info node name into the kill ring.  With a zero prefix
arg, puts the node name inside the `info' function call.

*** New face `info-xref-visited' distinguishes visited nodes from unvisited
and a new option `Info-fontify-visited-nodes' to control this.

*** A numeric prefix argument of `info' selects an Info buffer
with the number appended to the `*info*' buffer name (e.g. "*info*<2>").

*** Info now hides node names in menus and cross references by default.

If you prefer the old behavior, you can set the new user option
`Info-hide-note-references' to nil.

*** The default value for `Info-scroll-prefer-subnodes' is now nil.

** Emacs server changes

*** You can have several Emacs servers on the same machine.

	% emacs --eval '(setq server-name "foo")' -f server-start &
	% emacs --eval '(setq server-name "bar")' -f server-start &
	% emacsclient -s foo file1
	% emacsclient -s bar file2

*** The `emacsclient' command understands the options `--eval' and
`--display' which tell Emacs respectively to evaluate the given Lisp
expression and to use the given display when visiting files.

*** User option `server-mode' can be used to start a server process.

** Locate changes

*** By default, reverting the *Locate* buffer now just runs the last
`locate' command back over again without offering to update the locate
database (which normally only works if you have root privileges).  If
you prefer the old behavior, set the new customizable option
`locate-update-when-revert' to t.

** Desktop package

*** Desktop saving is now a minor mode, `desktop-save-mode'.

*** The variable `desktop-enable' is obsolete.

Customize `desktop-save-mode' to enable desktop saving.

*** Buffers are saved in the desktop file in the same order as that in the
buffer list.

*** The desktop package can be customized to restore only some buffers
immediately, remaining buffers are restored lazily (when Emacs is

*** New command line option --no-desktop

*** New commands:
  - desktop-revert reverts to the last loaded desktop.
  - desktop-change-dir kills current desktop and loads a new.
  - desktop-save-in-desktop-dir saves desktop in the directory from which
    it was loaded.
  - desktop-lazy-complete runs the desktop load to completion.
  - desktop-lazy-abort aborts lazy loading of the desktop.

*** New customizable variables:
  - desktop-save. Determines whether the desktop should be saved when it is
  - desktop-file-name-format. Format in which desktop file names should be saved.
  - desktop-path. List of directories in which to lookup the desktop file.
  - desktop-locals-to-save. List of local variables to save.
  - desktop-globals-to-clear. List of global variables that `desktop-clear' will clear.
  - desktop-clear-preserve-buffers-regexp. Regexp identifying buffers that `desktop-clear'
    should not delete.
  - desktop-restore-eager. Number of buffers to restore immediately. Remaining buffers are
    restored lazily (when Emacs is idle).
  - desktop-lazy-verbose. Verbose reporting of lazily created buffers.
  - desktop-lazy-idle-delay. Idle delay before starting to create buffers.

*** New hooks:
  - desktop-after-read-hook run after a desktop is loaded.
  - desktop-no-desktop-file-hook run when no desktop file is found.

** Recentf changes

The recent file list is now automatically cleaned up when recentf mode is
enabled.  The new option `recentf-auto-cleanup' controls when to do
automatic cleanup.

The ten most recent files can be quickly opened by using the shortcut
keys 1 to 9, and 0, when the recent list is displayed in a buffer via
the `recentf-open-files', or `recentf-open-more-files' commands.

The `recentf-keep' option replaces `recentf-keep-non-readable-files-p'
and provides a more general mechanism to customize which file names to
keep in the recent list.

With the more advanced option `recentf-filename-handlers', you can
specify functions that successively transform recent file names.  For
example, if set to `file-truename' plus `abbreviate-file-name', the
same file will not be in the recent list with different symbolic
links, and the file name will be abbreviated.

To follow naming convention, `recentf-menu-append-commands-flag'
replaces the misnamed option `recentf-menu-append-commands-p'.  The
old name remains available as alias, but has been marked obsolete.

** Auto-Revert changes

*** You can now use Auto Revert mode to `tail' a file.

If point is at the end of a file buffer before reverting, Auto Revert
mode keeps it at the end after reverting.  Similarly if point is
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displayed at the end of a file buffer in any window, it stays at the end
of the buffer in that window.  This allows you to "tail" a file: just
put point at the end of the buffer and it stays there.  This rule
applies to file buffers.  For non-file buffers, the behavior can be mode
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If you are sure that the file will only change by growing at the end,
then you can tail the file more efficiently by using the new minor
mode Auto Revert Tail mode.  The function `auto-revert-tail-mode'
toggles this mode.

*** Auto Revert mode is now more careful to avoid excessive reverts and
other potential problems when deciding which non-file buffers to
revert.  This matters especially if Global Auto Revert mode is enabled
and `global-auto-revert-non-file-buffers' is non-nil.  Auto Revert
mode only reverts a non-file buffer if the buffer has a non-nil
`revert-buffer-function' and a non-nil `buffer-stale-function', which
decides whether the buffer should be reverted.  Currently, this means
that auto reverting works for Dired buffers (although this may not
work properly on all operating systems) and for the Buffer Menu.

*** If the new user option `auto-revert-check-vc-info' is non-nil, Auto
Revert mode reliably updates version control info (such as the version
control number in the mode line), in all version controlled buffers in
which it is active.  If the option is nil, the default, then this info
only gets updated whenever the buffer gets reverted.

** Changes in Shell Mode

*** Shell output normally scrolls so that the input line is at the
bottom of the window -- thus showing the maximum possible text.  (This
is similar to the way sequential output to a terminal works.)

** Changes in Hi Lock

*** hi-lock-mode now only affects a single buffer, and a new function
`global-hi-lock-mode' enables Hi Lock in all buffers.  By default, if
hi-lock-mode is used in what appears to be the initialization file, a
warning message suggests to use global-hi-lock-mode instead.  However,
if the new variable `hi-lock-archaic-interface-deduce' is non-nil,
using hi-lock-mode in an initialization file will turn on Hi Lock in all
buffers and no warning will be issued (for compatibility with the
behavior in older versions of Emacs).

** Changes in Allout

*** Topic cryptography added, enabling easy gpg topic encryption and
decryption.  Per-topic basis enables interspersing encrypted-text and
clear-text within a single file to your heart's content, using symmetric
and/or public key modes.  Time-limited key caching, user-provided
symmetric key hinting and consistency verification, auto-encryption of
pending topics on save, and more, make it easy to use encryption in
powerful ways.  Encryption behavior customization is collected in the
allout-encryption customization group.

*** Default command prefix was changed to "\C-c " (control-c space), to
avoid intruding on user's keybinding space.  Customize the
`allout-command-prefix' variable to your preference.

*** Some previously rough topic-header format edge cases are reconciled.
Level 1 topics use the mode's comment format, and lines starting with the
asterisk - for instance, the comment close of some languages (eg, c's "*/"
or mathematica's "*)") - at the beginning of line are no longer are
interpreted as level 1 topics in those modes.

*** Many or most commonly occurring "accidental" topics are disqualified.
Text in item bodies that looks like a low-depth topic is no longer mistaken
for one unless its first offspring (or that of its next sibling with
offspring) is only one level deeper.

For example, pasting some text with a bunch of leading asterisks into a
topic that's followed by a level 3 or deeper topic will not cause the
pasted text to be mistaken for outline structure.

The same constraint is applied to any level 2 or 3 topics.

This settles an old issue where typed or pasted text needed to be carefully
reviewed, and sometimes doctored, to avoid accidentally disrupting the
outline structure.  Now that should be generally unnecessary, as the most
prone-to-occur accidents are disqualified.

*** Allout now refuses to create "containment discontinuities", where a
topic is shifted deeper than the offspring-depth of its container.  On the
other hand, allout now operates gracefully with existing containment
discontinuities, revealing excessively contained topics rather than either
leaving them hidden or raising an error.

*** Navigation within an item is easier.  Repeated beginning-of-line and
end-of-line key commands (usually, ^A and ^E) cycle through the
beginning/end-of-line and then beginning/end of topic, etc.  See new
customization vars `allout-beginning-of-line-cycles' and

*** New or revised allout-mode activity hooks enable creation of
cooperative enhancements to allout mode without changes to the mode,

See `allout-exposure-change-hook', `allout-structure-added-hook',
`allout-structure-deleted-hook', and `allout-structure-shifted-hook'.

`allout-exposure-change-hook' replaces the existing
`allout-view-change-hook', which is being deprecated.  Both are still
invoked, but `allout-view-change-hook' will eventually be ignored.
`allout-exposure-change-hook' is called with explicit arguments detailing
the specifics of each change (as are the other new hooks), making it easier
to use than the old version.

There is a new mode deactivation hook, `allout-mode-deactivate-hook', for
coordinating with deactivation of allout-mode.  Both that and the mode
activation hook, `allout-mode-hook' are now run after the `allout-mode'
variable is changed, rather than before.

*** Allout now uses text overlay's `invisible' property for concealed text,
instead of selective-display.  This simplifies the code, in particular
avoiding the need for kludges for isearch dynamic-display, discretionary
handling of edits of concealed text, undo concerns, etc.

*** There are many other fixes and refinements, including:

   - repaired inhibition of inadvertent edits to concealed text, without
     inhibiting undo; we now reveal undo changes within concealed text.
   - auto-fill-mode is now left inactive when allout-mode starts, if it
     already was inactive.  also, `allout-inhibit-auto-fill' custom
     configuration variable makes it easy to disable auto fill in allout
     outlines in general or on a per-buffer basis.
   - allout now tolerates fielded text in outlines without disruption.
   - hot-spot navigation now is modularized with a new function,
     `allout-hotspot-key-handler', enabling easier use and enhancement of
     the functionality in allout addons.
   - repaired retention of topic body hanging indent upon topic depth shifts
   - bulleting variation is simpler and more accommodating, both in the
     default behavior and in ability to vary when creating new topics
   - mode deactivation now does cleans up effectively, more properly
     restoring affected variables and hooks to former state, removing
     overlays, etc.  see `allout-add-resumptions' and
     `allout-do-resumptions', which replace the old `allout-resumptions'.
   - included a few unit-tests for interior functionality.  developers can
     have them automatically run at the end of module load by customizing
     the option `allout-run-unit-tests-on-load'.
   - many, many other, more minor tweaks, fixes, and refinements.
   - version number incremented to 2.2

** Hideshow mode changes

*** New variable `hs-set-up-overlay' allows customization of the overlay
used to effect hiding for hideshow minor mode.  Integration with isearch
handles the overlay property `display' specially, preserving it during
temporary overlay showing in the course of an isearch operation.

*** New variable `hs-allow-nesting' non-nil means that hiding a block does
not discard the hidden state of any "internal" blocks; when the parent
block is later shown, the internal blocks remain hidden.  Default is nil.

** FFAP changes

*** New ffap commands and keybindings:

C-x C-r (`ffap-read-only'),
C-x C-v (`ffap-alternate-file'), C-x C-d (`ffap-list-directory'),
C-x 4 r (`ffap-read-only-other-window'), C-x 4 d (`ffap-dired-other-window'),
C-x 5 r (`ffap-read-only-other-frame'), C-x 5 d (`ffap-dired-other-frame').

*** FFAP accepts wildcards in a file name by default.

C-x C-f passes the file name to `find-file' with non-nil WILDCARDS
argument, which visits multiple files, and C-x d passes it to `dired'.

** Changes in Skeleton

*** In skeleton.el, `-' marks the `skeleton-point' without interregion interaction.

`@' has reverted to only setting `skeleton-positions' and no longer
sets `skeleton-point'.  Skeletons which used @ to mark
`skeleton-point' independent of `_' should now use `-' instead.  The
updated `skeleton-insert' docstring explains these new features along
with other details of skeleton construction.

*** The variables `skeleton-transformation', `skeleton-filter', and
`skeleton-pair-filter' have been renamed to
`skeleton-transformation-function', `skeleton-filter-function', and
`skeleton-pair-filter-function'.  The old names are still available
as aliases.

** HTML/SGML changes

*** Emacs now tries to set up buffer coding systems for HTML/XML files

*** SGML mode has indentation and supports XML syntax.
The new variable `sgml-xml-mode' tells SGML mode to use XML syntax.
When this option is enabled, SGML tags are inserted in XML style,
i.e., there is always a closing tag.
By default, its setting is inferred on a buffer-by-buffer basis
from the file name or buffer contents.

*** The variable `sgml-transformation' has been renamed to
`sgml-transformation-function'.  The old name is still available as

*** `xml-mode' is now an alias for `sgml-mode', which has XML support.

** TeX modes

*** New major mode Doctex mode, for *.dtx files.

*** C-c C-c prompts for a command to run, and tries to offer a good default.

*** The user option `tex-start-options-string' has been replaced
by two new user options: `tex-start-options', which should hold
command-line options to feed to TeX, and `tex-start-commands' which should hold
TeX commands to use at startup.

*** verbatim environments are now highlighted in courier by font-lock
and super/sub-scripts are made into super/sub-scripts.

** RefTeX mode changes

*** Changes to RefTeX's table of contents

The new command keys "<" and ">" in the TOC buffer promote/demote the
section at point or all sections in the current region, with full
support for multifile documents.

The new command `reftex-toc-recenter' (`C-c -') shows the current
section in the TOC buffer without selecting the TOC window.
Recentering can happen automatically in idle time when the option
`reftex-auto-recenter-toc' is turned on.  The highlight in the TOC
buffer stays when the focus moves to a different window.  A dedicated
frame can show the TOC with the current section always automatically
highlighted.  The frame is created and deleted from the toc buffer
with the `d' key.

The toc window can be split off horizontally instead of vertically.
See new option `reftex-toc-split-windows-horizontally'.

Labels can be renamed globally from the table of contents using the
key `M-%'.

The new command `reftex-goto-label' jumps directly to a label

*** Changes related to citations and BibTeX database files

Commands that insert a citation now prompt for optional arguments when
called with a prefix argument.  Related new options are
`reftex-cite-prompt-optional-args' and `reftex-cite-cleanup-optional-args'.

The new command `reftex-create-bibtex-file' creates a BibTeX database
with all entries referenced in the current document.  The keys "e" and
"E" allow to produce a BibTeX database file from entries marked in a
citation selection buffer.

The command `reftex-citation' uses the word in the buffer before the
cursor as a default search string.

The support for chapterbib has been improved.  Different chapters can
now use BibTeX or an explicit `thebibliography' environment.

The macros which specify the bibliography file (like \bibliography)
can be configured with the new option `reftex-bibliography-commands'.

Support for jurabib has been added.

*** Global index matched may be verified with a user function.

During global indexing, a user function can verify an index match.
See new option `reftex-index-verify-function'.

*** Parsing documents with many labels can be sped up.

Operating in a document with thousands of labels can be sped up
considerably by allowing RefTeX to derive the type of a label directly
from the label prefix like `eq:' or `fig:'.  The option
`reftex-trust-label-prefix' needs to be configured in order to enable
this feature.  While the speed-up is significant, this may reduce the
quality of the context offered by RefTeX to describe a label.

*** Miscellaneous changes

The macros which input a file in LaTeX (like \input, \include) can be
configured in the new option `reftex-include-file-commands'.

RefTeX supports global incremental search.

** BibTeX mode

*** The new command `bibtex-url' browses a URL for the BibTeX entry at
point (bound to C-c C-l and mouse-2, RET on clickable fields).

*** The new command `bibtex-entry-update' (bound to C-c C-u) updates
an existing BibTeX entry by inserting fields that may occur but are not

*** New `bibtex-entry-format' option `required-fields', enabled by default.

*** `bibtex-maintain-sorted-entries' can take values `plain',
`crossref', and `entry-class' which control the sorting scheme used
for BibTeX entries.  `bibtex-sort-entry-class' controls the sorting
scheme `entry-class'.  TAB completion for reference keys and
automatic detection of duplicates does not require anymore that
`bibtex-maintain-sorted-entries' is non-nil.

*** The new command `bibtex-complete' completes word fragment before
point according to context (bound to M-tab).

*** In BibTeX mode the command `fill-paragraph' (M-q) fills
individual fields of a BibTeX entry.

*** The new variable `bibtex-autofill-types' contains a list of entry
types for which fields are filled automatically (if possible).

*** The new commands `bibtex-find-entry' and `bibtex-find-crossref'
locate entries and crossref'd entries (bound to C-c C-s and C-c C-x).
Crossref fields are clickable (bound to mouse-2, RET).

*** The new variables `bibtex-files' and `bibtex-file-path' define a set
of BibTeX files that are searched for entry keys.

*** The new command `bibtex-validate-globally' checks for duplicate keys
in multiple BibTeX files.

*** If the new variable `bibtex-autoadd-commas' is non-nil,
automatically add missing commas at end of BibTeX fields.

*** The new command `bibtex-copy-summary-as-kill' pushes summary
of BibTeX entry to kill ring (bound to C-c C-t).

*** If the new variable `bibtex-parse-keys-fast' is non-nil,
use fast but simplified algorithm for parsing BibTeX keys.

*** The new variables bibtex-expand-strings and
bibtex-autokey-expand-strings control the expansion of strings when
extracting the content of a BibTeX field.

*** The variables `bibtex-autokey-name-case-convert' and
`bibtex-autokey-titleword-case-convert' have been renamed to
`bibtex-autokey-name-case-convert-function' and
`bibtex-autokey-titleword-case-convert-function'.  The old names are
still available as aliases.

** GUD changes

*** The new package gdb-ui.el provides an enhanced graphical interface to
GDB.  You can interact with GDB through the GUD buffer in the usual way, but
there are also further buffers which control the execution and describe the
state of your program.  It can separate the input/output of your program from
that of GDB and watches expressions in the speedbar.  It also uses features of
Emacs 21/22 such as the toolbar, and bitmaps in the fringe to indicate

To use this package just type M-x gdb.  See the Emacs manual if you want the
old behavior.
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*** GUD mode has its own tool bar for controlling execution of the inferior
and other common debugger commands.

*** In GUD mode, when talking to GDB, C-x C-a C-j "jumps" the program
counter to the specified source line (the one where point is).

*** The variable tooltip-gud-tips-p has been removed.  GUD tooltips can now be
toggled independently of normal tooltips with the minor mode

*** In graphical mode, with a C program, GUD Tooltips have been extended to
display the #define directive associated with an identifier when program is
not executing.

*** GUD mode improvements for jdb:

**** Search for source files using jdb classpath and class information.
Fast startup since there is no need to scan all source files up front.
There is also no need to create and maintain lists of source
directories to scan.  Look at `gud-jdb-use-classpath' and
`gud-jdb-classpath' customization variables documentation.

**** The previous method of searching for source files has been
preserved in case someone still wants/needs to use it.
Set `gud-jdb-use-classpath' to nil.

**** Supports the standard breakpoint (gud-break, gud-clear)
set/clear operations from Java source files under the classpath, stack
traversal (gud-up, gud-down), and run until current stack finish

**** Supports new jdb (Java 1.2 and later) in addition to oldjdb
(Java 1.1 jdb).

*** Added jdb Customization Variables

**** `gud-jdb-command-name'.  What command line to use to invoke jdb.

**** `gud-jdb-use-classpath'.  Allows selection of java source file searching
method: set to t for new method, nil to scan `gud-jdb-directories' for
java sources (previous method).

**** `gud-jdb-directories'.  List of directories to scan and search for Java
classes using the original gud-jdb method (if `gud-jdb-use-classpath'
is nil).

*** Minor Improvements

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
**** The STARTTLS wrapper (starttls.el) can now use GnuTLS
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instead of the OpenSSL based `starttls' tool.  For backwards
compatibility, it prefers `starttls', but you can toggle
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Glenn Morris committed
`starttls-use-gnutls' to switch to GnuTLS (or simply remove the
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