Commit 06264b3d authored by Stephen Leake's avatar Stephen Leake

Improve CONTRIBUTE and related files.

* CONTRIBUTE: improve; add explicit web references, move some info from
  admin/notes/* here.

* INSTALL.REPO: You can't "just run make" after a clean checkout.

* admin/notes/commits: deleted; merged into ./CONTRIBUTE

* admin/notes/repo: move commit, branch info into ./CONTRIBUTE
parent 7841e934
......@@ -12,36 +12,65 @@ new features to add, please suggest them too -- we might like your
idea. Porting to new platforms is also useful, when there is a new
platform, but that is not common nowadays.
For documentation on how to develop Emacs changes, refer to the Emacs
Manual and the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual (both included in the Emacs
distribution). The web pages in http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs
contain additional information.
For documentation on Emacs (to understand how to implement your desired change), refer to:
You may also want to submit your change so that can be considered for
inclusion in a future version of Emacs (see below).
- the Emacs Manual
http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/emacs.html
(info "(Emacs)Top")
If you don't feel up to hacking Emacs, there are many other ways to
help. You can answer questions on the mailing lists, write
documentation, find and report bugs, check if existing bug reports
are fixed in newer versions of Emacs, contribute to the Emacs web
pages, or develop a package that works with Emacs.
- the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual
http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/elisp.html
(info "(elisp)Top")
- http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs
- http://www.emacswiki.org/
There are many ways to contribute to Emacs:
- implement a new feature, and submit a patch (see "Submitting
Patches" below).
- answer questions on the Emacs user mailing list
https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/help-gnu-emacs
- write documentation, either on the wiki, or in the Emacs source
repository (see "Submitting Patches" below)
- find and report bugs; use M-x report-emacs-bug
- check if existing bug reports are fixed in newer versions of Emacs
http://debbugs.gnu.org/cgi/pkgreport.cgi?which=pkg&data=emacs
- develop a package that works with Emacs, and publish it on your own or in Gnu ELPA.
Here are some style and legal conventions for contributors to Emacs:
* Coding Standards
Contributed code should follow the GNU Coding Standards.
Contributed code should follow the GNU Coding Standards
(http://www.gnu.org/prep/standards/ - may also be available in info on
your system).
If it doesn't, we'll need to find someone to fix the code before we
can use it.
Emacs has certain additional style and coding conventions.
Emacs has additional style and coding conventions:
- the "Tips" Appendix in the Emacs Lisp Reference
http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/elisp/Tips.html
(info "(elisp)Tips").
Ref: http://www.gnu.org/prep/standards/
Ref: GNU Coding Standards Info Manual
Ref: The "Tips" Appendix in the Emacs Lisp Reference.
- Avoid using `defadvice' or `eval-after-load' for Lisp code to be
included in Emacs.
- Remove all trailing whitespace in all source and text files.
- Emacs has no convention on whether to use tabs in source code, but
please don't change whitespace in the files you edit.
- Use ?\s instead of ? in Lisp code for a space character.
* Copyright Assignment
......@@ -75,19 +104,18 @@ patches) over all your contributions.
* Getting the Source Code
The latest version of the Emacs source code can be downloaded from the
Savannah web site. It is important to write your patch based on the
latest version. If you start from an older version, your patch may be
outdated (so that maintainers will have a hard time applying it), or
changes in Emacs may have made your patch unnecessary.
The current working version of the Emacs source code is stored in a
git repository on the Savannah web site
(http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/emacs). It is important to write
your patch based on the current working version. If you start from an
older version, your patch may be outdated (so that maintainers will
have a hard time applying it), or changes in Emacs may have made your
patch unnecessary.
After you have downloaded the repository source, you should read the file
INSTALL.REPO for build instructions (they differ to some extent from a
normal build).
Ref: http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/emacs
* Submitting Patches
Every patch must have several pieces of information before we
......@@ -112,11 +140,12 @@ For new features, a description of the feature and your implementation.
A ChangeLog entry as plaintext (separate from the patch).
See the existing ChangeLog files for format and content. Note that,
unlike some other projects, we do require ChangeLogs also for
unlike some other projects, we do require ChangeLogs for
documentation, i.e. Texinfo files.
Ref: "Change Log Concepts" node of the GNU Coding Standards Info
Manual, for how to write good log entries.
http://www.gnu.org/prep/standards/html_node/Change-Log-Concepts.html
When using git, commit messages should use ChangeLog format, with a
single short line explaining the change, then an empty line, then
......@@ -154,27 +183,106 @@ Making cosmetic formatting changes (indentation, etc) makes it harder
to see what you have really changed.
* Coding style and conventions.
* Supplemental information for Emacs Developers.
** Mandatory reading:
An "Emacs Developer" is someone who contributes a lot of code or
documentation to the Emacs repository.
The "Tips and Conventions" Appendix of the Emacs Lisp Reference.
** Write access to the Emacs repository.
** Avoid using `defadvice' or `eval-after-load' for Lisp code to be
included in Emacs.
Once you become a frequent contributor to Emacs, we can consider
giving you write access to the version-control repository. Request
access on the emacs-devel@gnu.org mailing list.
** Remove all trailing whitespace in all source and text files.
** Using the Emacs repository
** Use ?\s instead of ? in Lisp code for a space character.
Emacs uses git for the source code repository.
See http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/GitQuickStartForEmacsDevs to get
started, and http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/GitForEmacsDevs for more
advanced information.
* Supplemental information for Emacs Developers.
Alternately, see admin/notes/git-workflow.
** Write access to the Emacs repository.
If committing changes written by someone else, make the ChangeLog
entry in their name, not yours. git distinguishes between the author
and the committer; use the --author option on the commit command to
specify the actual author; the committer defaults to you.
Once you become a frequent contributor to Emacs, we can consider
giving you write access to the version-control repository.
** Changelog notes
- Preferred form for several entries with the same content:
* help.el (view-lossage):
* kmacro.el (kmacro-edit-lossage):
* edmacro.el (edit-kbd-macro): Fix docstring, lossage is now 300 keys.
(Rather than anything involving "ditto" and suchlike.)
- Emacs generally follows the GNU coding standards when it comes to
ChangeLogs:
http://www.gnu.org/prep/standards/html_node/Change-Logs.html . One
exception is that we still sometimes quote `like-this' (as the
standards used to recommend) rather than 'like-this' (as they do
now), because `...' is so widely used elsewhere in Emacs.
- There are multiple ChangeLogs in the emacs source; roughly one per
high-level directory. The ChangeLog entry for a commit belongs in the
lowest ChangeLog that is higher than or at the same level as any file
changed by the commit.
- In ChangeLog files, there is no standard or recommended way to
identify revisions.
One way to identify revisions is by quoting their summary line.
Another is with an action stamp - an RFC3339 date followed by !
followed by the committer's email - for example,
"2014-01-16T05:43:35Z!esr@thyrsus.com". Often, "my previous commit"
will suffice.
- There is no need to make separate change log entries for files such
as NEWS, MAINTAINERS, and FOR-RELEASE, or to indicate regeneration
of files such as 'configure'. "There is no need" means you don't
have to, but you can if you want to.
** branches
Development normally takes places on the trunk.
Sometimes specialized features are developed on separate branches
before possibly being merged to the trunk.
Development is discussed on the emacs-devel mailing list.
Sometime before the release of a new major version of Emacs a "feature
freeze" is imposed on the trunk, to prepare for creating a release
branch. No new features may be added to the trunk after this point,
until the release branch is created. This freeze is announced on the
emacs-devel mailing list, and not anywhere else.
For example, "emacs-23" for Emacs 23.2 and later, "EMACS_23_1_RC" for
23.1, "EMACS_22_BASE" for 22.x, and "EMACS_21_1_RC" for 21.x.
You must follow emacs-devel to know exactly what kinds of changes are
allowed on what branch at any time. Announcements about the freeze
(and other important events) will contain "ANNOUNCE" in the subject.
If you are fixing a bug that exists in the current release, be sure to
commit it to the release branch; it will be merged to the master
branch later.
The exception is, if you know that the change will be difficult to
merge to the trunk (eg because the trunk code has changed a lot). In
that case, it's helpful if you can apply the change to both trunk and
branch yourself. Indicate in the release branch commit log that there
is no need to merge the commit to the trunk; start the commit message
with "Backport:". This is helpful for the person merging the release
branch to the trunk (it is handled automatically by gitmerge.el).
** Other process information
See all the files in admin/notes/* . In particular, see
admin/notes/newfile, see admin/notes/repo.
** Emacs Mailing lists.
......@@ -189,7 +297,7 @@ by following links from http://savannah.gnu.org/mail/?group=emacs .
** Document your changes.
Any change that matters to end-users should have a NEWS entry.
Any change that matters to end-users should have an entry in etc/NEWS.
Think about whether your change requires updating the documentation
(both manuals and doc-strings). If you know it does not, mark the NEWS
......
2014-12-05 Stephen Leake <stephen_leake@stephe-leake.org>
* CONTRIBUTE: improve, move some info from admin/notes/* here.
2014-12-05 Stephen Leake <stephen_leake@stephe-leake.org>
* etc/CONTRIBUTE: renamed to ./CONTRIBUTE, preparatory to further
changes/cleanup
2014-12-05 Paul Eggert <eggert@cs.ucla.edu>
* .gitignore: Remove redundant pattern (subsumed by _*).
......
Building and Installing Emacs from the Repository
Simply run 'make'. This should work if your files are freshly checked
out from the repository, and if you have the proper tools installed.
If it doesn't work, or if you have special build requirements, the
following information may be helpful.
Building Emacs from the source-code repository requires some tools
that are not needed when building from a release. You will need:
......@@ -34,6 +29,12 @@ can invoke './configure -C'. After configuring, build Emacs as follows:
If you want to install Emacs, type 'make install' instead of 'make' in
the last command.
After your first build, you can usually just run 'make' after any
updates from the Savannah repository or local edits; the makefile
contains logic to re-run configure as needed. However, if the autoconf
input files have changed, or in some other situations, you will need
to run 'make bootstrap' (more below).
Occasionally the file 'lisp/loaddefs.el' (and similar automatically
generated files, such as 'esh-groups.el', and '*-loaddefs.el' in some
subdirectories of 'lisp/', e.g., 'mh-e/' and 'calendar/') will need to be
......
HOW TO COMMIT CHANGES TO EMACS
Most of these points are from:
http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/emacs-devel/2009-03/msg00555.html
From: Miles Bader
Subject: commit style redux
Date: Tue, 31 Mar 2009 12:21:20 +0900
(0) Each commit should correspond to a single change (whether spread
over multiple files or not). Do not mix different changes in the
same commit (eg adding a feature in one file, fixing a bug in
another should be two commits, not one).
(1) Commit all changed files at once with a single log message (which
in CVS will result in an identical log message for all committed
files), not one-by-one. This is pretty easy using vc-dir now.
(2) Make the log message describe the entire changeset, perhaps
including relevant changelog entries (I often don't bother with
the latter if it's a trivial sort of change).
Many modern source-control systems vaguely distinguish the first
line of the log message to use as a short summary for abbreviated
history listing (in arch this was explicitly called the summary,
but many other systems have a similar concept). So it's nice if
you can format the log entry like:
SHORTISH ONE-LINE SUMMARY
MULTIPLE-LINE DETAILED DESCRIPTION POSSIBLY INCLUDING (OR
CONSISTING OF) CHANGELOG ENTRIES
[Even with CVS this style is useful, because web CVS browsing
interfaces often include the first N words of the log message of
the most recent commit as a short "most recent change"
description.]
(3) Don't phrase log messages assuming the filename is known, because
in non-file-oriented systems (everything modern other than CVS),
the log listing tends to be treated as global information, and the
connection with specific files is less explicit.
For instance, currently I often see log messages like "Regenerate";
for modern source-control systems with a global log, it's better to
have something like "Regenerate configure".
(4) (Added in 2014) In commit comments, and ChangeLog files, it is best
to use ways of identifying revisions that are not dependent on a
particular version control system. (At time of writing Emacs is
about to move to its fourth VCS and another move in the future is
not impossible.) An excellent way to identify commits is by
quoting their summary line. Another is with an action stamp - an
RFC3339 date followed by ! followed by the committer's email - for
example, "2014-01-16T05:43:35Z!esr@thyrsus.com". Often, "my
previous commit" will suffice.
Followup discussion:
http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/emacs-devel/2010-01/msg00897.html
http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/emacs-devel/2010-02/msg00401.html
PREVIOUS GUIDELINES FOR CVS
For historical interest only, here is the old-style advice for CVS logs:
http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/emacs-devel/2007-12/msg01208.html
From: Eli Zaretskii
Subject: Re: Log messages in CVS
Date: Sat, 29 Dec 2007 16:06:29 +0200
NOTES ON COMMITTING TO EMACS'S REPOSITORY -*- outline -*-
* Commit metainformation
** Commit in the author's name
If installing changes written by someone else, commit them in their
name, not yours.
** Commit message format
Commit messages should follow the conventions used in all modern
distributed version-control systems. That is, they should consist of
- A self-contained topic line, preferably no more than 75 chars long.
- If other content follows the topic line, there should be a blank
line separating the two.
- Follow the blank line with ChangeLog-like entries for the specific
changes you made, if any. (As long as Emacs maintains ChangeLog
files, just copy the entries you made in them to the commit message
after the blank line.)
- Preferred form for several entries with the same content:
* help.el (view-lossage):
* kmacro.el (kmacro-edit-lossage):
* edmacro.el (edit-kbd-macro): Fix docstring, lossage is now 300 keys.
(Rather than anything involving "ditto" and suchlike.)
- Emacs generally follows the GNU coding standards when it comes to ChangeLogs:
http://www.gnu.org/prep/standards/html_node/Change-Logs.html
One exception is that we still sometimes quote `like-this' (as the
standards used to recommend) rather than 'like-this' (as they do now),
because `...' is so widely used elsewhere in Emacs.
http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/emacs-devel/2014-05/msg00514.html
** Unnecessary metainformation
There is no need to make separate change log entries for files such as
NEWS, MAINTAINERS, and FOR-RELEASE, or to indicate regeneration of
files such as 'configure'. "There is no need" means you don't have
to, but you can if you want to.
* Commit to the right branch
Development normally takes places on the trunk.
Sometimes specialized features are developed on separate branches
before possibly being merged to the trunk.
Development is discussed on the emacs-devel mailing list.
Sometime before the release of a new major version of Emacs
a "feature freeze" is imposed on the trunk. No new features may be
added after this point. This is usually some months before the release.
Shortly before the release, a release branch is created, and the
trunk is then free for development.
For example, "emacs-23" for Emacs 23.2 and later, "EMACS_23_1_RC" for
23.1, "EMACS_22_BASE" for 22.x, and "EMACS_21_1_RC" for 21.x.
Consult emacs-devel for exactly what kinds of changes are allowed
on what branch at any time.
** elpa
This branch does not contain a copy of Emacs, but of the Emacs Lisp
......@@ -72,25 +7,6 @@ package archive (elpa.gnu.org). See admin/notes/elpa for further
explanation, and the README file in the branch for usage
instructions.
* Install changes only on one branch, let them get merged elsewhere if needed.
In particular, install bug-fixes only on the release branch (if there
is one) and let them get synced to the trunk; do not install them by
hand on the trunk as well. E.g. if there is an active "emacs-24" branch
and you have a bug-fix appropriate for the next emacs-24.x release,
install it only on the emacs-24 branch, not on the trunk as well.
Installing things manually into more than one branch makes merges more
difficult.
http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/emacs-devel/2010-03/msg01124.html
The exception is, if you know that the change will be difficult to
merge to the trunk (eg because the trunk code has changed a lot).
In that case, it's helpful if you can apply the change to both trunk
and branch yourself (when committing the branch change, indicate
in the commit log that it should not be merged to the trunk; see below).
* Installing changes from your personal branches.
If your branch has only a single commit, or many different real
......@@ -129,14 +45,6 @@ variable in admin/merge-gnulib before running it.
If you remove a gnulib module, or if a gnulib module
removes a file, then remove the corresponding files by hand.
* Backporting a bug-fix from the trunk to a branch (e.g. "emacs-24").
Indicate in the commit log that there is no need to merge the commit
to the trunk, e.g. start the commit message with "Backport:". This is
helpful for the person merging the release branch to the trunk.
http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/emacs-devel/2010-05/msg00262.html
* How to merge changes from emacs-24 to trunk
[The section on git merge procedure has not yet been written]
......
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