Commit 1bac2ebb authored by Dave Love's avatar Dave Love

*** empty log message ***

parent 4efd38a1
-*- text -*-
For an order form for all Emacs and FSF distributions deliverable from
the USA, see the file `ORDERS' in this directory (etc/ in the GNU
Emacs distribution or /pub/gnu/GNUinfo on ftp.gnu.org). For a
European order form, see `ORDERS.EUROPE'. For a Japan order form,
see `ORDERS.JAPAN'.
GNU Emacs availability information, April 1998
Copyright (C) 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1995, 1998
Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to anyone to make or distribute
verbatim copies of this document provided that the
copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved.
GNU Emacs is legally owned by the Free Software Foundation, but we
regard the foundation more as its custodian on behalf of the public.
In the GNU project, when we speak of "free software", this refers to
liberty, not price. Specifically, it refers to the users' freedom to
study, copy, change and improve the software. Sometimes users pay
money for copies of GNU software, and sometimes they get copies at no
charge. But regardless of how they got the software, or whether it
was modified by anyone else along the way, they have the freedom to
copy and change it--those freedoms are what "free software" means.
The precise conditions for copying and modification are stated in the
document "GNU General Public License," a copy of which is required to
be distributed with every copy of GNU Emacs. It is usually in a file
named `COPYING' in the same directory as this file. These conditions
are designed to make sure that everyone who has a copy of GNU Emacs
(including modified versions) has the freedom to redistribute and
change it.
If you do not know anyone to get a copy of GNU Emacs from, you can
order a cd-rom from the Free Software Foundation. We distribute Emacs
versions 19 and 20. We also distribute nicely typeset copies of the
Emacs user manual, Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, the Emacs reference
card, etc. See file `ORDERS'.
If you have Internet access, you can copy the latest Emacs
distribution from hosts, such as ftp.gnu.org. There are several
ways to do this; see the file `FTP' for more information. Even
better, get the latest version of the file from `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/FTP'
on ftp.gnu.org for the most current arrangements. It may also be
possible to copy Emacs via uucp; the file `FTP' contains information
on that too.
Emacs has been run on both Berkeley Unix and System V Unix, on a
variety of types of cpu. It also works on VMS and on Apollo
computers, though with some deficiencies that reflect problems in
these operating systems. See the file `MACHINES' in this directory
(see above) for a full list of machines that GNU Emacs has been tested
on, with machine-specific installation notes and warnings. There is
also Demacs that works on newer MS-DOS machines (see file `ORDERS').
Note that there is significant variation between Unix systems
supposedly running the same version of Unix; it is possible that what
works in GNU Emacs for me does not work on your system due to such an
incompatibility. Since I must avoid reading Unix source code, I
cannot even guess what such problems may exist.
GNU Emacs is distributed with no warranty (see the General Public
License for full details, in the file `COPYING' in this directory (see
above)), and neither I nor the Free Software Foundation promises any
kind of support or assistance to users. The foundation keeps a list
of people who are willing to offer support and assistance for hire.
See the file `SERVICE'. You can get the latest version from
ftp.gnu.org in file `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE'.
However, we plan to continue to improve GNU Emacs and keep it
reliable, so please send me any complaints and suggestions you have.
I will probably fix anything that I consider a malfunction. I may
make improvements that are suggested, but I may choose not to.
Improving Emacs is not my highest priority now.
If you are on the Internet, report bugs to bug-gnu-emacs@gnu.org.
Otherwise, phone or write the Foundation at:
Free Software Foundation
59 Temple Place - Suite 330
Boston, MA 02111-1307
Voice: +1-617-542-5942
Fax: +1-617-542-2652
General questions about the GNU Project can be asked of
gnu@gnu.org.
If you are a computer manufacturer, I encourage you to ship a copy of
GNU Emacs with every computer you deliver. The same copying
permission terms apply to computer manufacturers as to everyone else.
You should consider making a donation to help support the GNU project;
if you estimate what it would cost to distribute some commercial
product and divide it by five, that is a good amount.
If you like GNU Emacs, please express your satisfaction with a
donation: send me or the Foundation what you feel Emacs has been worth
to you. If you are glad that I developed GNU Emacs and distribute it
as freeware, rather than following the obstructive and antisocial
practices typical of software developers, reward me. If you would
like the Foundation to develop more free software, contribute.
Your donations will help to support the development of additional GNU
software. GNU/Linux systems (variants of GNU, based on the kernel
Linux) have millions of users, but there is still much to be done.
For more information on GNU, see the file `GNU' in this directory (see
above).
Richard M Stallman
Chief GNUisance,
President of the Free Software Foundation
-*- text -*-
How to get GNU Software by Internet FTP or by UUCP. Last updated 1999-01-20
* Please send improvements to this file to gnu@gnu.org.
* No Warranties
We distribute software in the hope that it will be useful, but without
any warranty. No author or distributor of this software accepts
responsibility to anyone for the consequences of using it or for
whether it serves any particular purpose or works at all, unless he
says so in writing. This is exactly the same warranty that the commercial
software companies offer: None. If the distribution is incomplete or the
media fails, you can always download a replacement from any of the GNU
mirrors, free of charge.
* Updates
A possibly more up-to-date list of GNU FTP sites is at
http://www.gnu.org/order/ftp.html
* How to FTP
Use the ftp program on your system (ask locally if you can't find it)
to connect to the host you are ftping from. Unless indicated
otherwise, login in as user "anonymous", with password: "your e-mail
address" and set "binary" mode (to transfer all eight bits in each
byte).
ALWAYS USE BINARY/IMAGE MODE TO TRANSFER THESE FILES!
Text mode does not work for tar files or compressed files.
* GNU Software and How To FTP It
GNU software is available on ftp.gnu.org under the directory /gnu.
diff files to convert between versions exist for some of these
programs. Some programs have misc support files as well. Have a look
on ftp.gnu.org to see which ones. In most cases, the tar or diff
files are compressed with the `gzip' program; this is indicated with
the .gz suffix.
Descriptions of GNU software are available at
http://www.gnu.org/software/software.html
* Alternative Internet FTP Sources
Please do NOT use a site outside your country, until you have checked
all sites inside your country, and then your continent. Trans-ocean
TCP/IP links are very expensive and usually very low speed.
The canonical GNU ftp site is located at ftp.gnu.org/gnu.
You should probably use one of the many mirrors of that site - the
mirrors will be less busy, and you can find one closer to your site.
* GNU FTP Site Mirror List
United States:
California - labrea.stanford.edu/pub/gnu, gatekeeper.dec.com/pub/GNU
Hawaii - ftp.hawaii.edu/mirrors/gnu
Illinois - uiarchive.cso.uiuc.edu/pub/gnu (Internet address 128.174.5.14)
Kentucky - ftp.ms.uky.edu/pub/gnu
Maryland - ftp.digex.net/pub/gnu (Internet address 164.109.10.23)
Massachusetts - aeneas.mit.edu/pub/gnu
Michigan - gnu.egr.msu.edu/pub/gnu
Missouri - wuarchive.wustl.edu/systems/gnu
New Mexico - ftp.cs.unm.edu/mirrors/gnu
New York - ftp.cs.columbia.edu/archives/gnu/prep
Ohio - ftp.cis.ohio-state.edu/mirror/gnu
Tennessee - ftp.skyfire.net/pub/gnu
Virginia - ftp.uu.net/archive/systems/gnu
Washington - ftp.nodomainname.net/pub/mirrors/gnu
Africa:
South Africa - ftp.sun.ac.za/gnu
The Americas:
Brazil - ftp.unicamp.br/pub/gnu
Brazil - master.softaplic.com.br/pub/gnu
Brazil - linuxlabs.lci.ufrj.br/gnu
Canada - ftp.cs.ubc.ca/mirror2/gnu
Chile - ftp.inf.utfsm.cl/pub/gnu (Internet address 146.83.198.3)
Costa Rica - sunsite.ulatina.ac.cr/GNU
Mexico - ftp.uaem.mx/pub/gnu
Australia:
Australia - archie.au/gnu (archie.oz or archie.oz.au for ACSnet)
Australia - ftp.progsoc.uts.edu.au/pub/gnu
Australia - mirror.aarnet.edu.au/pub/gnu
Asia:
Japan - tron.um.u-tokyo.ac.jp/pub/GNU/prep
Japan - ftp.cs.titech.ac.jp/pub/gnu
Korea - cair-archive.kaist.ac.kr/pub/gnu (Internet address 143.248.186.3)
Saudi Arabia - ftp.isu.net.sa/pub/mirrors/prep.ai.mit.edu/
Taiwan - ftp.edu.tw/UNIX/gnu/
Taiwan - ftp.nctu.edu.tw/UNIX/gnu/
Taiwan - ftp1.sinica.edu.tw/pub3/GNU/gnu/
Thailand - ftp.nectec.or.th/pub/mirrors/gnu (Internet address - 192.150.251.32)
Europe:
Austria - ftp.univie.ac.at/packages/gnu
Austria - gd.tuwien.ac.at/gnu/gnusrc
Belgium - ftp.be.gnu.org/
Austria - http://gd.tuwien.ac.at/gnu/gnusrc/
Czech Republic - ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/gnu/
Denmark - ftp.denet.dk/mirror/ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu
Denmark - ftp.dkuug.dk/pub/gnu/
Finland - ftp.funet.fi/pub/gnu
France - ftp.univ-lyon1.fr/pub/gnu
France - ftp.irisa.fr/pub/gnu
Germany - ftp.informatik.tu-muenchen.de/pub/comp/os/unix/gnu/
Germany - ftp.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/pub/gnu
Germany - ftp.de.uu.net/pub/gnu
Greece - ftp.forthnet.gr/pub/gnu
Greece - ftp.ntua.gr/pub/gnu
Greece - ftp.aua.gr/pub/mirrors/GNU (Internet address 143.233.187.61)
Hungary - ftp.kfki.hu/pub/gnu
Ireland - ftp.esat.net/pub/gnu (Internet address 193.120.14.241)
Italy - ftp.oasi.gpa.it/pub/gnu
Netherlands - ftp.eu.net/gnu (Internet address 192.16.202.1)
Netherlands - ftp.nluug.nl/pub/gnu
Netherlands - ftp.win.tue.nl/pub/gnu (Internet address 131.155.70.19)
Norway - ftp.ntnu.no/pub/gnu (Internet address 129.241.11.142)
Poland - ftp.task.gda.pl/pub/gnu
Portugal - ftp.ci.uminho.pt/pub/mirrors/gnu
Portugal - http://ciumix.ci.uminho.pt/mirrors/gnu/
Portugal - ftp.ist.utl.pt/pub/gnu
Russia - ftp.chg.ru/pub/gnu/
Slovenia - ftp.arnes.si/pub/software/gnu
Spain - ftp.etsimo.uniovi.es/pub/gnu
Sweden - ftp.isy.liu.se/pub/gnu
Sweden - ftp.stacken.kth.se
Sweden - ftp.luth.se/pub/unix/gnu
Sweden - ftp.sunet.se/pub/gnu (Internet address 130.238.127.3)
Also mirrors the Mailing List Archives.
Sweden - swamp.ios.chalmers.se/pub/gnu/
Switzerland - ftp.eunet.ch/mirrors4/gnu
Switzerland - sunsite.cnlab-switch.ch/mirror/gnu (Internet address 193.5.24.1)
United Kingdom - ftp.mcc.ac.uk/pub/gnu (Internet address 130.88.203.12)
United Kingdom - unix.hensa.ac.uk/mirrors/gnu
United Kingdom - ftp.warwick.ac.uk (Internet address 137.205.192.14)
United Kingdom - SunSITE.doc.ic.ac.uk/gnu (Internet address 193.63.255.4)
* How to FTP GNU Emacs
Emacs is in the directory /gnu/emacs on ftp.gnu.org. The emacs
distribution itself has a filename in the form emacs-M.N.tar.gz, where
M and N stand for the version numbers; the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual
is in a separate file, named elisp-manual-NN.tar.gz.
* Scheme and How to FTP It
The latest distribution version of C Scheme is available via anonymous FTP
from swiss-ftp.ai.mit.edu in /pub/scheme-X.X/ (where X.X is some version
number).
Read the files INSTALL and README in the top level C Scheme directory.
* TeX and How to Obtain It
We don't distribute TeX now, but it is free software.
TeX is a document formatter that is used, among other things, by the FSF
for all its documentation. You will need it if you want to make printed
manuals.
TeX is freely redistributable. You can get it by ftp, tape, or CD/ROM.
** For FTP instructions, retrieve the file
ftp.cs.umb.edu/pub/tex/unixtex.ftp. (We don't include it here because it
changes relatively frequently. Sorry.)
** A minimal TeX collection (enough to process Texinfo files, anyway)
is included on the GNU source CD-ROM. See the file ORDERS in this
directory for more information.
* VMS FTP sites with GNU Software
You can anonymously ftp a VMS version of GNU emacs from:
- ftp.vms.stacken.kth.se:[.GNU-VMS] - GNU Emacs and some other VMS
ports (and some VMS binaries) of GNU software
- mango.rsmas.miami.edu has a VMS version of the GCC/G++ compiler.
Contact angel@flipper.miami.edu (angel li) for details.
- RIGEL.EFD.LTH.SE [130.235.48.3] - GNU Emacs
* Getting GNU software in Great Britain
jpo@cs.nott.ac.uk is willing to distribute those GNU sources he has
available. The smaller items are available from the info-server (send
to info-server@cs.nott.ac.uk); the larger items by negotiation. Due to
communication costs this service is only available within the UK.
BattenIG@computer-science.birmingham.ac.uk (aka
I.G.Batten@fulcrum.bt.co.uk) is also willing to distribute those GNU
sources he has.
wizards@doc.ic.ac.uk is willing to distribute those GNU sources they have
along with most other freely distributable software. The SunSITE archive
on SunSITE.doc.ic.ac.uk (193.63.255.4) is available via ftp, http, fsp,
gopher, NFS and Lanmanger over IP (SMB), and telnet.
UK sites with just anonymous FTP access are in the above list.
* Getting GNU software via UUCP
OSU is distributing via UUCP: most GNU software, MIT C Scheme,
Compress, News, RN, NNTP, Patch, some Appletalk stuff, some of the
Internet Requests For Comment (RFC) et al.. See their periodic
postings on the Usenet newsgroup comp.sources.d for informational
updates. Current details from <staff@cis.ohio-state.edu> or
<...!osu-cis!staff>.
Information on how to uucp some GNU programs is available via
electronic mail from: uunet!hutch!barber, hqda-ai!merlin, acornrc!bob,
hao!scicom!qetzal!upba!ugn!nepa!denny, ncar!noao!asuvax!hrc!dan,
bigtex!james (aka james@bigtex.cactus.org), oli-stl!root,
src@contrib.de (Germany), toku@dit.co.jp (Japan) and info@ftp.uu.net.
* If You Like The Software
If you like the software developed and distributed by the Free
Software Foundation, please express your satisfaction with a donation.
Your donations will help to support the Foundation and make our future
efforts successful, including a complete development and operating
system, called GNU (Gnu's Not Unix), which will run Unix user
programs. For more information on GNU and the Foundation, contact us
at the above address, or see our web site at http://www.gnu.org.
Ordering a GNU Source Code CD-ROM or Source Code CD-ROM Subscription
is a good way for your organization to help support our work.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
Linux and the GNU system
The GNU project started 12 years ago with the goal of developing a
complete free Unix-like operating system. "Free" refers to freedom,
not price; it means you are free to run, copy, distribute, study,
change, and improve the software.
A Unix-like system consists of many different programs. We found some
components already available as free software--for example, X Windows
and TeX. We obtained other components by helping to convince their
developers to make them free--for example, the Berkeley network
utilities. Other components we wrote specifically for GNU--for
example, GNU Emacs, the GNU C compiler, the GNU C library, Bash, and
Ghostscript. The components in this last category are "GNU software".
The GNU system consists of all three categories together.
The GNU project is not just about developing and distributing some
useful free software. The heart of the GNU project is an idea: that
software should be free, and that the users' freedom is worth
defending. For if people have freedom but do not consciously
appreciate it, they will not keep it for long. If we want to make
freedom last, we need to call people's attention to the freedoms they
have in free software.
The GNU project's method is that free software and the idea of users'
freedom support each other. We develop GNU software, and as people
encounter GNU programs or the GNU system and start to use them, they
also think about the GNU idea. The software shows that the idea can
work in practice. Some of these people come to agree with the idea,
and then they are more likely to write additional free software.
Thus, the software embodies the idea, spreads the idea, and grows from
the idea.
By 1992, we had found or written all of the essential major components
of the system except the kernel, which we were writing. (This kernel
consists of the Mach microkernel plus the GNU HURD. Currently it is
running but not ready for users. The first test release was made in
1996.)
Then the Linux kernel became available. Linux is a free
Unix-compatible kernel initially written by Linus Torvalds. It was
not written for the GNU project, but Linux and the almost-complete GNU
system made a useful combination. This combination provided all the
major essential components of a Unix-compatible operating system, and
with some work, people made it into a usable system. It was a variant
GNU system, based on the Linux kernel.
Ironically, the popularity of these systems undermines our method of
communicating the GNU idea to people who use GNU. These systems are
mostly the same as the GNU system--the main difference being the
choice of kernel. But people usually call them "Linux systems". At
first impression, a "Linux system" sounds like something completely
distinct from the "GNU system," and that is what most users think it
is.
Most introductions to the "Linux system" acknowledge the role played
by the GNU software components. But they don't say that the system as
a whole is a modified version of the GNU system that the GNU project
has been developing and compiling since 1984. They don't say that the
goal of a free Unix-like system like this one came from the GNU
project. So most users don't know these things.
Since human beings tend to correct their first impressions less than
subsequent information calls for, those users who later learn about
the relationship between these systems and the GNU project still often
underestimate it.
This leads many users to identify themselves as a separate community
of "Linux users", distinct from the GNU user community. They use all
of the GNU software; in fact, they use almost all of the GNU system;
but they don't think of themselves as GNU users, and often they don't
think that the GNU idea relates to them.
It leads to other problems as well--even hampering cooperation on
software maintenance. Normally when users change a GNU program to
make it work better on a particular system, they send the change to
the maintainer of that program; then they work with the maintainer,
explaining the change, arguing for it, and sometimes rewriting it for
the sake of the overall coherence and maintainability of the package,
to get the patch installed.
But people who think of themselves as "Linux users" are more likely to
release a forked "Linux-only" version of the GNU program, and consider
the job done. We want each and every GNU program to work "out of the
box" on Linux-based systems; but if the users do not help, that goal
becomes much harder to achieve.
How should the GNU project deal with this problem? What should we do
now to spread the idea that freedom for computer users is important?
We should continue to talk about the freedom to share and change
software--and to teach other users to value these freedoms. If we
enjoy having a free operating system, it makes sense for us to think
about preserving those freedoms for the long term. If we enjoy having
a variety of free software, it makes sense for to think about
encouraging others to write additional free software, instead of
additional proprietary software.
We should not accept the idea of two separate communities for GNU and
Linux. Instead we should spread understanding that "Linux systems"
are variants of the GNU system, and that the users of these systems
are GNU users as well as Linux users (users of the Linux kernel).
Users who know this will naturally tend to take a look at the GNU
philosophy which brought these systems into existence.
I've written this article as one way of doing that. Another way is to
use the terms "Linux-based GNU system" or "GNU/Linux system", instead
of "Linux system," when you write about or mention such a system.
Copyright 1996 Richard Stallman
Verbatim copying and redistribution is permitted
without royalty as long as this notice is preserved.
This diff is collapsed.
STUDIES FIND REWARD OFTEN NO MOTIVATOR
Creativity and intrinsic interest diminish if task is done for gain
By Alfie Kohn
Special to the Boston Globe
[reprinted with permission of the author
from the Monday 19 January 1987 Boston Globe]
In the laboratory, rats get Rice Krispies. In the classroom the top
students get A's, and in the factory or office the best workers get
raises. It's an article of faith for most of us that rewards promote
better performance.
But a growing body of research suggests that this law is not nearly as
ironclad as was once thought. Psychologists have been finding that
rewards can lower performance levels, especially when the performance
involves creativity.
A related series of studies shows that intrinsic interest in a task -
the sense that something is worth doing for its own sake - typically
declines when someone is rewarded for doing it.
If a reward - money, awards, praise, or winning a contest - comes to
be seen as the reason one is engaging in an activity, that activity
will be viewed as less enjoyable in its own right.
With the exception of some behaviorists who doubt the very existence
of intrinsic motivation, these conclusions are now widely accepted
among psychologists. Taken together, they suggest we may unwittingly
be squelching interest and discouraging innovation among workers,
students and artists.
The recognition that rewards can have counter-productive effects is
based on a variety of studies, which have come up with such findings
as these: Young children who are rewarded for drawing are less likely
to draw on their own that are children who draw just for the fun of
it. Teenagers offered rewards for playing word games enjoy the games
less and do not do as well as those who play with no rewards.
Employees who are praised for meeting a manager's expectations suffer
a drop in motivation.
Much of the research on creativity and motivation has been performed
by Theresa Amabile, associate professor of psychology at Brandeis
University. In a paper published early last year on her most recent
study, she reported on experiments involving elementary school and
college students. Both groups were asked to make "silly" collages.
The young children were also asked to invent stories.
The least-creative projects, as rated by several teachers, were done
by those students who had contracted for rewards. "It may be that
commissioned work will, in general, be less creative than work that is
done out of pure interest," Amabile said.
In 1985, Amabile asked 72 creative writers at Brandeis and at Boston
University to write poetry. Some students then were given a list of
extrinsic (external) reasons for writing, such as impressing teachers,
making money and getting into graduate school, and were asked to think
about their own writing with respect to these reasons. Others were
given a list of intrinsic reasons: the enjoyment of playing with
words, satisfaction from self-expression, and so forth. A third group
was not given any list. All were then asked to do more writing.
The results were clear. Students given the extrinsic reasons not only
wrote less creatively than the others, as judged by 12 independent
poets, but the quality of their work dropped significantly. Rewards,
Amabile says, have this destructive effect primarily with creative
tasks, including higher-level problem-solving. "The more complex the
activity, the more it's hurt by extrinsic reward," she said.
But other research shows that artists are by no means the only ones
affected.
In one study, girls in the fifth and sixth grades tutored younger
children much less effectively if they were promised free movie
tickets for teaching well. The study, by James Gabarino, now
president of Chicago's Erikson Institute for Advanced Studies in Child
Development, showed that tutors working for the reward took longer to
communicate ideas, got frustrated more easily, and did a poorer job in
the end than those who were not rewarded.
Such findings call into question the widespread belief that money is
an effective and even necessary way to motivate people. They also
challenge the behaviorist assumption that any activity is more likely
to occur if it is rewarded. Amabile says her research "definitely
refutes the notion that creativity can be operantly conditioned."
But Kenneth McGraw, associate professor of psychology at the
University of Mississippi, cautions that this does not mean
behaviorism itself has been invalidated. "The basic principles of
reinforcement and rewards certainly work, but in a restricted context"
- restricted, that is, to tasks that are not especially interesting.
Researchers offer several explanations for their surprising findings
about rewards and performance.
First, rewards encourage people to focus narrowly on a task, to do it
as quickly as possible and to take few risks. "If they feel that
'this is something I hve to get through to get the prize,' the're
going to be less creative," Amabile said.
Second, people come to see themselves as being controlled by the
reward. They feel less autonomous, and this may interfere with
performance. "To the extent one's experience of being
self-determined is limited," said Richard Ryan, associate psychology
professor at the University of Rochester, "one's creativity will be
reduced as well."
Finally, extrinsic rewards can erode intrinsic interest. People who
see themselves as working for money, approval or competitive success
find their tasks less pleasurable, and therefore do not do them as
well.
The last explanation reflects 15 years of work by Ryan's mentor at the
University of Rochester, Edward Deci. In 1971, Deci showed that
"money may work to buy off one's intrinsic motivation for an activity"
on a long-term basis. Ten years later, Deci and his colleagues
demonstrated that trying to best others has the same effect. Students
who competed to solve a puzzle quickly were less likely than those who
were not competing to keep working at it once the experiment was over.
Control plays role
There is general agreement, however, that not all rewards have the
same effect. Offering a flat fee for participating in an experiment -
similar to an hourly wage in the workplace - usually does not reduce
intrinsic motivation. It is only when the rewards are based on
performing a given task or doing a good job at it - analogous to
piece-rate payment and bonuses, respectively - that the problem
develops.
The key, then, lies in how a reward is experienced. If we come to
view ourselves as working to get something, we will no longer find
that activity worth doing in its own right.
There is an old joke that nicely illustrates the principle. An
elderly man, harassed by the taunts of neighborhood children, finally
devises a scheme. He offered to pay each child a dollar if they would
all return Tuesday and yell their insults again. They did so eagerly
and received the money, but he told them he could only pay 25 cents on
Wednesday. When they returned, insulted him again and collected their
quarters, he informed them that Thursday's rate would be just a penny.
"Forget it," they said - and never taunted him again.
Means to and end
In a 1982 study, Stanford psychologist Mark L. Lepper showed that any
task, no matter how enjoyable it once seemed, would be devalued if it
were presented as a means rather than an end. He told a group of
preschoolers they could not engage in one activity they liked until
they first took part in another. Although they had enjoyed both
activities equally, the children came to dislike the task that was a
prerequisite for the other.
It should not be surprising that when verbal feedback is experienced
as controlling, the effect on motivation can be similar to that of
payment. In a study of corporate employees, Ryan found that those who
were told, "Good, you're doing as you /should/" were "significantly
less intrinsically motivated than those who received feedback
informationally."
There's a difference, Ryan says, between saying, "I'm giving you this
reward because I recognize the value of your work" and "You're getting
this reward because you've lived up to my standards."
A different but related set of problems exists in the case of
creativity. Artists must make a living, of course, but Amabile
emphasizes that "the negative impact on creativity of working for
rewards can be minimized" by playing down the significance of these
rewards and trying not to use them in a controlling way. Creative
work, the research suggests, cannot be forced, but only allowed to
happen.
/Alfie Kohn, a Cambridge, MA writer, is the author of "No Contest: The
Case Against Competition," recently published by Houghton Mifflin Co.,
Boston, MA. ISBN 0-395-39387-6. /
This diff is collapsed.
Order form for GNU Distribution Europe, Belgium.
Prices as of July 1998, and may change without notice.
Sportstraat 28 Fax : +32-9-2224976
9000 Gent Phone : +32-9-2227542
Belgium
europe-order@gnu.org
GNU Distribution Europe, Belgium sells GNU CD-ROMs, manuals and
t-shirts in Europe on behalf of the Free Software Foundation.
Ordering from GNU Distribution Europe, Belgium supports the GNU
project just like ordering from the Free Software Foundation, but
offers people in Europe additional convenient payment methods and a
lower overall price.
To order a Deluxe Distribution, please contact the FSF directly.
CD-ROMs, in ISO 9660 format
GNU Source Code CD-ROMs, Version 11 (March 1998) with X11R6.3:
____ @ 9750 BEF = ______ BEF for corporations and other organizations.
____ @ 2550 BEF = ______ BEF for individuals.
GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, Version 5 (March 1998) Edition:
____ @ 8950 BEF = ______ BEF for corporations and other organizations.
____ @ 2350 BEF = ______ BEF for individuals.
Manuals
____ @ 950 BEF = ______ BEF Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction.
____ @ 950 BEF = ______ BEF Debugging with GDB, with a reference card.
____ @ 1150 BEF = ______ BEF GAWK: GNU Awk User's Guide.
____ @ 950 BEF = ______ BEF Make manual.
____ @ 950 BEF = ______ BEF Bison manual, with a reference card.
____ @ 950 BEF = ______ BEF Flex manual, with a reference card.
____ @ 1150 BEF = ______ BEF Texinfo manual.
____ @ 750 BEF = ______ BEF Termcap manual.
____ @ 1400 BEF = ______ BEF GNU Emacs manual, with a reference card.
____ @ 2650 BEF = ______ BEF GNU Emacs Lisp Reference manual.
____ @ 2250 BEF = ______ BEF Using and Porting GNU CC.
____ @ 2250 BEF = ______ BEF GNU C Library Reference Manual.
____ @ 2300 BEF = ______ BEF GNU Emacs Calc manual, with a reference card.
Reference Cards
The following reference cards, in packets of ten. For single copies please
contact us.
____ @ 500 BEF = ______ BEF GNU Emacs version 20 reference cards.
____ @ 500 BEF = ______ BEF GNU Emacs Calc reference cards.
____ @ 500 BEF = ______ BEF GDB reference cards.
____ @ 500 BEF = ______ BEF Bison reference cards.
____ @ 500 BEF = ______ BEF Flex reference cards.
T-shirts
We have made new T-shirts for 1998. The front contains the typing gnu
from our first T-shirt; the back has the preamble to the GNU General
Public License.
GNU/FSF T-shirts are thick 100% cotton in sizes: L, XL, XXL (they run
small) in colors: black, burgundy, blue-green, natural (off-white).
The sizes S and M are available in black and natural (off-white).
Size XXXL is avaiable in black only. Please list 1st, 2nd, and 3rd
choice of color.
____ @ 800 BEF = ______ BEF Size _____
Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______
____ @ 800 BEF = ______ BEF Size _____
Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______
____ @ 800 BEF = ______ BEF Size _____
Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______
____ @ 800 BEF = ______ BEF Size _____
Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______
======
Subtotal ______ BEF
Tax and Shipping Costs
+ ______ BEF For addresses in Belgium: add 21% sales tax
or give tax exempt number.
+ ______ BEF Shipping fee for other E.U. countries:
150 BEF extra for addresses outside Belgium.
For shipments to Italy, please add an
additional 200 BEF (350 BEF total).
+ ______ BEF C.O.D. fee (if you want C.O.D. shipping),
500 BEF.
+ ______ BEF Donation to Free Software Foundation
======
TOTAL ______ BEF
Note: The shipping fee for foreign destinations covers registered
mail. Registered mail normally takes 4 to 5 days to arrive. If you
would like shipping via air mail, or via courier, please contact GNU
Distribution Europe, Belgium for a price quote.
These prices are subject to change without notice. In particular, they
will very likely change if the exchange rate from USD to BEF changes
significantly.
Shipping Information
Name: ________________________________________________________________________
Mail Stop/Dept. Name: ________________________________________________________
Organization: ________________________________________________________________
Street Address: ______________________________________________________________